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Old December 3rd, 2009 #1
John White2
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Join Date: Aug 2009
Posts: 91
John White2
Default 100 Propaganda Techniques

One of the most persistent human efforts in any society is for elite groups to try to persuade members of society to think or act in a desired way. There are many ways to get ideas and wants across to others. One way is to use physical force or threats of violence to achieve goals. Propaganda is organized persuasion and involves the communication of a point of view with the ultimate goal of the recipient of the view voluntarily accepting the propagandist's view.

Here are 100 propaganda techniques for your arsenal.

Contents:

1. Techniques of Faulty Logic

Simplification
CONCURRENCY
POST HOC
GENERALIZATION
FAULTY ANALOGY
CONDEMNING THE ORIGIN
FALSE CONVERSION OF PROPOSITIONS
WHAT IS TRUE OF THE PARTS IS TRUE OF THE WHOLE
THE BLACK AND WHITE FALLACY
USING AN ILLICIT DEFINITION
FALLACY OF BIASED SAMPLING
THE GAMBLER'S FALLACY
THE FALLACY OF INCONSISTENCY
APPEAL TO INAPPROPRIATE AUTHORITY.

2. Techniques of Diversion and Evasion

USE OF AMBIGUOUS WORDS
AD HOMINEM
BEGGING THE QUESTION
THE WICKED ALTERNATIVE
NON-SEQUITUR
ACCUSING THE ACCUSER
NAME CALLING
THE USE OF SATIRE
REPARTEE
CHOOSE A SCAPEGOAT

3. Techniques Appealing to the Emotions

APPEAL TO TRADITION
DEMAND FOR SPECIAL CONSIDERATION
APPEAL TO THE EMOTIONS
PERSONIFICATION
THE USE OF HOT AND COLD WORDS
LOOK TO THE FUTURE AND BE OPTIMISTIC
LET ALTRUISM REIGN

4. Techniques Using Falsehoods and Trickery

QUOTING OUT OF CONTEXT
USE OF NUMBERS TO IMPRESS
FALSE DILEMMA
USING A MINOR POINT TO DISCREDIT A PERSON, PLACE OR THING
LEADING QUESTION
SEEK SIMPLE ANSWERS
EXAGGERATION OF CONSEQUENCES
DOUBLE TALK
MANIPULATING NUMBERS
BIG LIE
PLACEMENT OF EMPHASIS
USE INNUENDO
APPEAL TO IGNORANCE.
CARD STACKING
STRESS HIGH MORAL PRINCIPLES
FALSE URGENCY
PRAISE ONE THING THE OPPONENT HAS DONE. THEN ON TO THE ATTACK
SET UP A STRAW MAN
TELLING THEM YOU WERE GOING TO LIE, BUT COULDN'T DO IT
BUILD A "POTEMKIN VILLAGE"
MAKE THE IDEAS BEING SUPPORTED OR OPPOSED SEEM TO BE FOREGONE CONCLUSIONS
DEFINE TERMS TO SUIT GOALS

5. Techniques Playing on Human Behavioral Tendencies, Mental Capacities and Processes

APPEAL TO AUTHORITY
REPETITION
USE SLOGANS
PLAIN FOLKS
TRANSFER
TESTIMONIAL
USING A SCAPEGOAT
CHALLENGE TO THE EGO
EMPHASIZING CREDENTIALS
TELL THEM IT’S CONFIDENTAL
STIMULATE CURIOSITY
IMITATE, MIMIC OR MOCK THE OPPONENT
AD POPULUM
ACTION INVOLVEMENT
PRESENT UTOPIAN OR DYSTOPIAN FANTASIES
SCARCITY SELLS

6. Techniques of Speaking or Writing Styles

SHOCK `EM
THE SHOTGUN APPROACH
EMPHASIZE ONE POINT
BREAK THE ICE
START COLD, GET WARM AND END HOT
BUILDING THE MESSAGE AROUND A PROVERB
USING GESTURES AND PROPS
MAKING A PRE-EMPTIVE STRIKE

7. Techniques That Exploit Reason or Common Sense

USING THE SOCRATIC METHOD
USE METAPHORS AND SIMILES
HELP FROM GIANTS OF THE PAST AND PRESENT
CHOOSE WORDS WISELY
YES, BUT...



1. Techniques of Faulty Logic

SIMPLIFICATION
It is often necessary for a propagandist to simplify complexities in order to have the skeleton of his or her ideas understood and accepted quickly. When a bank sponsors a commercial that states, "...all your troubles will be over when you take out a loan with us", simplification is at work. One way to easily simplify a message is to check the vocabulary being used. Complex words will be replaced with simpler words more easily understood.

CONCURRENCY
This is one of a group of illogical propaganda techniques still being widely used. Its form is usually stated in this way: A with B, therefore A cause of B. Let's say a propagandist is opposed to motion pictures with explicit sexual themes being shown where he or she lives. The propagandist begins to research what's going on in the community looking for negative data to support the position being advocated. Statistics on unwed mothers, abandoned newborn babies, sexual crimes such as rape or pederasty will be gathered.

POST HOC
This technique follows the pattern that A precedes B, therefore A is the cause of B. As an example let's imagine a hypothetical nation somewhere in the mid-Pacific Ocean. We can picture a place which is run by two political parties; party one and party two. An advocate of the party might claim that a great war occurred when party two was at the helm and would try to link that war with party two. In fact, there might not be any provable relationship.

GENERALIZATION
A generalization can be identified as having the following form: Al is B, A2 is B, A3 is B, therefore all As are B. An example would be that if you know an Italian professor who is intelligent, an Italian judge who is intelligent and an Italian doctor who is intelligent you might conclude that all Italians are intelligent. If you purchase three apples from a store barrel and they're all rotten you tend to feel that the whole barrel is full of rotten apples. You may be right or you may be wrong but why take a chance? This is how generalizations get their power to convince.

FAULTY ANALOGY
An analogy is a correspondence in some respects between things otherwise dissimilar, such as "a ninety year old and a twelve year old both like to swim". They have love of the sport in common, but not physical capabilities. The more dissimilar things being compared are the more faulty the analogy. A navy poster could say the death rate is lower in the Navy than in New York City - only fit young men and women are in the navy and are discharged when they are sick and cities contain many millions of old, young, sick, but the arguement could still be pursuasive to young people.

CONDEMNING THE ORIGIN
This technique attempts to discredit an idea by showing that it has an unappealing source. One example of this technique would be a claim made by an advocate for the abolition of the death penalty. Such a claim might sound like this; `The prison system and capital punishment are children of the Dark Ages and should be abolished'. "Eugenics is Nazi science" etc.

FALSE CONVERSION OF PROPOSITIONS
A person who states that all communists are atheists and goes on to say that therefore all atheists are communists is demonstrating the use of this technique. The statement, "All Roman Catholics believe in God", followed by "All those people who believe in God are Roman Catholics." would probably not be as easily accepted as the first example might be.

WHAT IS TRUE OF THE PARTS IS TRUE OF THE WHOLE
An automobile salesperson might put down a competitor's car by selecting a few weaknesses in the car and drawing the conclusion that it's a lemon.

THE BLACK AND WHITE FALLACY
A statement that doesn't allow for intermediate states between two extremes is often a black and white fallacy. For instance, if people are being described as being good or bad, patriotic or unpatriotic, skinny or fat, tall or short, having thick hair or being bald, a believer or infidel, with us or against us, just or unjust or happy or sad, the propagandist is using this black and white fallacy.

e.g Neocon George Bush "You're either with us, or against us".

USING AN ILLICIT DEFINITION
This technique involves using a word that has an old and accepted definition and giving the word a new and often unrecognized definition.
“If you have an abortion and terminate the life of a potential human being, you are guilty of murder." This use of the word "murder" is flaunting the accepted legal definition.

FALLACY OF BIASED SAMPLING
A propagandist may issue millions of questioners but if his or her sampling is biased, there'll be misleading results. This may lead to false conclusions.
e.g "4 out of 5 people questioned like our chocolate"

THE GAMBLER'S FALLACY
People often reason that if they've had a spell of bad luck, they should increase their bets. They feel this way because they assume that they are due for a spell of good luck to balance things out.
A propagandist can make use of the Gambler's Fallacy. If you are running for high office against an opponent who has experienced a run of bad luck, or has made unfortunate mistakes you have an opportunity. You can shout to your audience that you'll change things and bring back happy days. You might say that it's about time that the people's fortunes were changed. You could add to this by saying that we all certainly deserve a win after a series of losses. You will hope that the people will go for this message just like some gamblers do.

THE FALLACY OF INCONSISTENCY
This fallacy of inconsistency occurs when we reason from inconsistent premises. "All general claims have exceptions." - This claim itself is a general claim, and so if it is true, it must also have an exception itself. This implies that not all general claims have exceptions. So the claim itself is inconsistent.

APPEAL TO INAPPROPRIATE AUTHORITY
When alleged experts are not in a position to know or are otherwise unreliable, the propagandist is appealing to inappropriate authority. In a commercial designed to encourage people to drink beer, a movie star or athlete will beat out a brew master every time in touting the greatness of the beverage.


2. Techniques of Diversion and Evasion

USE OF AMBIGUOUS WORDS
An ambiguous word is one that is susceptible of multiple interpretations. Words such as God, good, freedom, democracy and truth can have many different meanings and resonate with many different people who give it their own personal interpretation. In the statement, "John Smith is a very good candidate," critical thinkers should want some serious discussion of exactly what is meant by the word good.

AD HOMINEM
In Latin ad hominem means "to the man". In today's world it means "to attack a person with words". This technique calls for the abandonment of reason in argument and instead attacking the character of a person.

BEGGING THE QUESTION
Begging the question assumes that something not yet proven is true. If the audience lets the propagandist get away with it, begging the question can be an effective technique.

“Our founding fathers would have never supported the regulation of firearms." (How do we know what the founding fathers would or would not have supported, they are dead?)

THE WICKED ALTERNATIVE
Using this technique the propagandist tries to defend someone or something by attacking its opposite. A propagandist who proclaimed that "We must immediately undertake a massive program of building both a light and a heavy railway system as well as subway systems in all the large cities" will support his position by attacking private transportation. He or she might claim that our present "car culture", with its millions of automobiles, has given us great numbers of deaths and horrible injuries.

NON-SEQUITUR
Non-sequitur is a diversionary technique in which a person seems to be answering a question but, in fact, isn't. Imagine a mother wanting to know what went on during her daughter's first date:

Mother: "How was your date with Harry?"
Daughter: "Mom, you should have seen Harry's car! Dad would have loved it. It had a television in the back and four loudspeakers for the stereo. To ride in that car was like riding on a cloud."

ACCUSING THE ACCUSER
This is a way to attempt to fend off an attack by making a diversion. The minute the propagandist is accused of something, he or she fires off a counter accusation.

Senator A: " You spend too much of the taxpayers' money"!
Senator B: "What about that fact finding trip you and your wife took to Europe?"

NAME CALLING
People, places and things have been the recipients of the name-calling technique.

For People: dirty rat, black dog, vermin, vipers, gutter snipes, uncouth, vulgar, crude, Neanderthal, scum, slime ball, jerk, idiot, imbecile, bitch, witch, fool
For Places: Hell hole, the pits, a dump, the boondocks, a jungle, a snake pit, a shark tank, the sticks, a mud hole, a slum, no place, a zoo, an insane asylum
For Things: Outrageous, primitive, crude, ugly, useless, horrible, nasty, inferior, stupid, bizarre, ridiculous, a "rube goldberg"

THE USE OF SATIRE
Satire is attacking human vices and follies through wit. Satire is used to attack those conventional ideas and practices that are thought to be absurdities in the opinion of the satirist and which are blindly accepted by most people through thoughtlessness, habit or social custom.

REPARTEE
Repartee is an exchange of quick witty replies to sharp or bitter remarks.
Lady Nancy Astor, who entered the House of Commons in 1919 as its first woman member, had few betters in the art of vicious repartee. But she did have some and Winston Churchill was one of them. After one conflict over ideas, Lady Astor is reported to have said to Churchill, "Winston, if you were my husband, I would poison your coffee." Churchill replied, "If you were my wife, Nancy, I would drink it."

CHOOSE A SCAPEGOAT
Scapegoat is a term used to focus the blame, correctly or incorrectly, on one group. History is strewn with groups used as scapegoats, especially political, ethnic, religious, racial or social class. These groups were blamed for all or most of the ills of a particular society.


3. Techniques Appealing to the Emotions

APPEAL TO TRADITION
This technique appeals to people who use historical precedent to judge ideas. All of us , at some point, have heard people say, "But we've always done it that way”. Have we outgrown appeals to tradition? Certainly not and a propagandist can often get loud applause by appealing to the values that sustained our nation through good and bad times in the past.


DEMAND FOR SPECIAL CONSIDERATION

This technique is usually based on a hardship story. Politicians and lawyers are well known for making pleas for special circumstances to get someone or something off the hook. The following is a list of selected areas from which hardship stories may emerge:

Gender, race, political groups, religion, mental or physical disabilities, height, weight, social class, regional background, sexual orientation, occupation, past record of behavior, temporary mental state, membership in an organization etc.

APPEAL TO THE EMOTIONS
Human emotions constitute a very complex set of feelings. The range of emotions is extensive and each emotion can be subdivided into seemingly endless variations. Emotions can be compared to colors. A person can choose one color and by adding increasing amounts of white he or she can create endless tints of color. If a person adds increasing amounts of black to the chosen color he or she can create endless shades of the color.

Love can be subdivided into compassion, fondness, obsessive attachment, adoration and so forth.

Fear can be subdivided into terror, apprehension, uneasiness and countless phobias attached to an infinite list of objects and situations.

One way of thinking about emotions is to list some of them under two headings: Positive Emotions and Negative Emotions.

Positive Emotions: love, hope, faith, enthusiasm, loyalty, pity, remorse, etc.

Negative emotions: Anger, hate, jealousy, rage, bitterness

Example: An Appeal to Greed:
Greed seems to be a universal characteristic of people everywhere. A mayor of a small town with economic problems might request the community's support for constructing a prison. The mayor might claim that new jobs would be created, taxes would be lowered and town businesses would profit by the expected increase in economic activity brought about by the new prison. The opposition to the project would have a hard time fighting the mayor, I suspect.

PERSONIFICATION
Personification is giving human characteristics to something that is non-human. In World War II, American propaganda posters portrayed Japanese soldiers as large rats eagerly feeding on the victims of their conquests. They were giving the rats the characteristics of a human. An environmentalist might say that acid rain is whispering in our ears, “Take care of the environment or the environment will take care of you."

THE USE OF HOT AND COLD WORDS
Emotion packed words or, as I call them, hot words, carry great power to arouse strong feelings in people. On the other hand, the choice of relatively unemotional or, as I call them, cold words, can reduce strong feelings. The clever propagandist chooses his or her words carefully hoping to persuade people to think a certain way. Two examples of how hot and cold words could be selected follows:

Several young boys are dead and you, as the defense attorney for the alleged perpetrators of the crime, want to cool down the jury and reduce any strong feelings they might already have. On the other side is the prosecuting attorney who really wants a conviction of the alleged felons and wants to increase the emotional intensity of the jurors. A hot and cold mixed word list follows:

killed
murdered
butchered
They massacred the boys.
executed
liquidated
terminated
martyred
have slain
slaughtered
reduced the lifespan of

You can make your own choice as to which words are hot or cold.


Euphemisms
Wally was a severe norm violator who lived in a poor environment. As a residentially challenged youth he spent much time at adult entertainment centers. When he was arrested for liberating women's purses, he used many expletives and made a pre-emptive strike against a police person. Even though he was educationally challenged, he vowed that given a chance he would become a tonsorial artist.

Translation
Wally was a naughty little lawbreaker who lived in a slum. As a homeless youth he spent much time at sex show places. When he was arrested for stealing women's purses, he swore and made a sneak attack on a policeperson. Even though lie was a poor student, lie vowed that given a chance he would become a barber.

LOOK TO THE FUTURE AND BE OPTIMISTIC
Propagandists can take advantage of people's desire to picture the future as being bright and prosperous. Words and phrases such as innovation, progress, advancement, improvement, high technology, ever upward and onward, reaching the stars, problem solving, high hopes, the bright world of tomorrow, etc. can form a positive attitude in the minds of many. This technique can work best if the propagandist isn't overly optimistic. A few obstacles should be included in the portrayal of a rosy future.

LET ALTRUISM REIGN
Altruism is concern for the welfare of others as opposed to egoism and selfishness. Many Americans have always thought they were a generous and magnanimous people. They try to help others whenever disasters such as earthquakes, fierce storms, great fires and floods occur.


[b]
4. Techniques Using Falsehoods and Trickery[b]


QUOTING OUT OF CONTEXT
This technique distorts the meaning of what a person has said about someone or something. The propagandist selects a few words to omit from a given text so as to distort the original meaning. Let's say that the book Hot Cargo has been reviewed in a newspaper. The review read "Hot Cargo is the best example of an amateurish film released this year." A later advertisement for the film, appropriately altered by the propagandist reads, "Hot Cargo is the best... film released this year."

USE OF NUMBERS TO IMPRESS
Some corporations brag about the number of items sold to validate what they manufacture. e.g. "1 million sold!"

FALSE DILEMMA
A dilemma is a situation that requires one to choose between two equally balanced alternatives. What makes a dilemma false is when only two choices are presented to a person or group, though in fact there are several or many possible choices. A person trying to persuade others knows full well the range of choices but wants to distract the listener by offering seemingly restricted choices.

USING A MINOR POINT TO DISCREDIT A PERSON, PLACE OR THING
This technique tries to make a mountain out of a molehill. In debating, speakers may try desperately to disprove a minor point or seize upon a small matter to discredit their opponent

LEADING QUESTION
A leading question is one that, no matter how it is answered, will incriminate the one who answers. Never ask a question that doesn't get the answer you want. Examples of leading questions are as follows:

a. Did you stop your habit of substance abuse?
b. Have you stopped committing acts of treason?

SEEK SIMPLE ANSWERS
Demanding a simple answer is a device used by advertisers, politicians and lawyers. A politician, after discussing a few examples of outrageous crimes in his or her district might ask the audience, "Do you want to put a stop to crime?" Easier said then done, but he or she hopes to develop an image of being tough on crime issues.

EXAGGERATION OF CONSEQUENCES
Exaggerating the consequences that may follow from the acceptance of someone or something isn't liked, or the rejection of someone or something that is liked is a common debate tactic. One candidate for public office might claim that if his or her opponent is elected taxes would increase, the budget would be in a shambles and corruption would invade every agency of the government.

DOUBLE TALK
Double talk is meaningless speech. It can consist of nonsense words or misplaced words within intelligible speech, or it can simply be contradictory statements.

MANIPULATING NUMBERS
This technique uses numbers to deceive. There are many many forms of number manipulation. When a person hears a commercial that states that 4 out of 5 doctors do something or use something such as take out insurance or drink a popular beverage, the intent is often to deceive. The advertisers only have to find 4 doctors who use a product or service and 1 who doesn't. Listeners or viewers are supposed to think that thousands of doctors were asked to respond to a survey.

BIG LIE
Big lies are assertions of fact with no evidence to support them. The idea is that if a lie is big enough, people will tend to think there must be some truth in it. The big lie was used a lot before Hitler's rise to power. In World War I the British spread the word that the Germans were cutting off the hands of Belgian children. This was not true.

PLACEMENT OF EMPHASIS
A positive or negative spin can be put on most things. It all depends on what is to be emphasized. A person might take pride in the fact that say 85% of American homes have indoor plumbing. A detractor of America could stress the fact that 15% of American homes do not have indoor plumbing.

USE INNUENDO
An innuendo is implying an accusation without risking refutation by actually saying it. If a person were to hear this statement, "The captain was sober today!" it implies that he's usually drunk

APPEAL TO IGNORANCE
The principle of this technique is that if something can't be proven it is not so, then it is so. It used to be difficult to prove that cigarettes were bad for a person's health.

CARD STACKING
Only listing the good, or bad, features of a person, place or thing is card stacking. This is really a way of telling a lie by telling the truth, but not the whole truth. For example an automobile salesperson can distort the truth in order to make a sale.

Characteristics of a Hypothetical Automobile
Good body construction, engine subject to breakdown, inferior radiator, good carburetor, poor electrical wiring, large and convenient back luggage trunk, poor instrumentation, excellent brakes, poor ignition, comfortable seats, low quality interior lighting, poor mileage, excellent sun roof. A person can be sure that a potential customer will be presented with all the non-italic characteristics of the car. Commercials often contain this card stacking technique, but you'll find it used by almost every propagandist.

STRESS HIGH MORAL PRINCIPLES
This technique claims that high moral principles (a vague term) characterize the people, ideas or things the propagandist supports. Many people like to think they are moral and uphold the values dominant in their communities

FALSE URGENCY
Doctors often tell their patients not to rush about so much, but advertisers seem deaf to such advice. A person constantly hears commercials calling for customers to rush down to the store before all items are sold out.

PRAISE ONE THING THE OPPONENT HAS DONE. THEN ON TO THE ATTACK
The propagandist can praise one small thing either said or done by his or her opponent and thereby appear to be fair-minded and rather magnanimous.

SET UP A STRAW MAN
A straw man is a fabricated person, object or matter (issue) used as a purposely weak adversary in a debate. A debate on the importance of greater funding for NASA would lend itself to the use of the straw man technique by propagandists opposed to the space agency. The International Space Station project would become the straw man in the debate. It can be called a waste of our national resources, an unending costly experiment, a drain on other science projects and a publicity stunt for NASA. The fact that there is some opposition to the project makes it relatively difficult to defend as opposed to other NASA projects. The essence of the straw man technique is to exaggerate and/or distort the opponent's argument in order to make it seem illogical or unreasonable.

TELLING THEM YOU WERE GOING TO LIE, BUT COULDN'T DO IT
It helps if he or she has some acting ability. If done well, the audience might be better disposed to accept the message. People like speakers who at least give the appearance of leveling with them.

BUILD A "POTEMKIN VILLAGE"
Alexandrovich Gregory Potemkin (1739 - 1791) was a Russian administrator serving Empress Catherine the Great. One of his pet projects was the colonization of the Ukraine. He vastly underestimated the cost of the venture and the project was quite unfinished when Catherine took a tour of the Ukraine. Potemkin tried to cover up the lack of progress and hide it from the eyes of Empress Catherine. There developed an apocryphal tale of Potemkin erecting artificial villages, like Hollywood stage sets, to be seen by the Empress in passing. "Potemkin Villages" came to denote any pretentious faqade designed to cover up a shabby or undesirable condition. If the propagandist needs to cover up something, this technique may work. "Potemkin Villages" have been built at many times and in many places. Hypothetically, a propagandist for a president seeking reelection might draft a speech showing an America that is great, strong, rich and beautiful. The fact that the portrayal is unreal, a "Potemkin Village" probably wouldn't bother him or her at all.

MAKE THE IDEAS BEING SUPPORTED OR OPPOSED SEEM TO BE FOREGONE CONCLUSIONS
If a propagandist supports a particular presidential candidate, then he or she can speak as though that person is all but in the White House already. A display of confidence (perhaps overconfidence) often can sway public opinion in support of the propagandist's choice. We can spot similar demonstrations of confidence in court struggles where contending lawyers clash.

DEFINE TERMS TO SUIT GOALS
Defining terms the way the propagandist wishes can eliminate things lie or she opposes or supports. An advocate for a candidate for high public office can define the word "good" to favor his or her choice. As part of a definition of "good" in what makes a "good candidate ", the advocate might include military service.


5. Techniques Playing on Human Behavioral Tendencies, Mental Capacities and Processes

APPEAL TO AUTHORITY
Many people don't like being self-directed. Making decisions and thinking for themselves make some people fearful and/or nervous. When someone tells them what to think or do it is quite relaxing. In an appeal to authority the propagandist simply tells people what to do or think. Examples would be statements that proclaim, "Drink Milk" or "Join the Army" or "Support Your Party." With this technique the propagandist doesn't have to provide reasons or explanations. People are just supposed to do what they are told.

REPETITION
Even the thickest skull can be penetrated by a message if it is repeated often enough.

USE SLOGANS
The word slogan most likely originated as a battle cry of ancient Scottish or Irish warriors. It is defined as a phrase expressing the aims or nature of an enterprise or organization. One of the most persistent human efforts is for elite groups in any society to try to persuade, brainwash, those members of society lower on the social class structure to think or act in a desired way. What better way to do this than to create a simplified easily remembered statement.

PLAIN FOLKS
This is an appealing technique for politicians, entertainers and spokespersons. If they are regular guys and gals, an average audience appears to like them better. Most people are uncomfortable in the company of very wealthy people, famous personalities or outstanding experts in various fields

TRANSFER
This technique attempts to transfer either good or bad feelings the propagandist might have towards a person, place or thing to another person, place or thing. Advertisers use transfer considerably. A group of young and beautiful men and women at a beach are shown drinking a national brand soft drink, viewers or listeners are supposed to transfer their good feelings they have toward the young people to the soft drink.

TESTIMONIAL
This technique makes use of popular well known people to support a person, a product or an idea. An expert is seldom used in making a testimonial advertisement. If the propagandist is trying to sell shoes he or she is much better off using a well known basketball star to support the product than a career shoemaker that few people know. Hero worship trumps reason in many ways.

USING A BIAS
A bias is a preference or inclination that inhibits impartial judgement. A bias can slant in two different directions.

Every society has its sacred cows, a person, place, idea or thing that is considered to be so important that few people speak out against them. . In Indian society the cow is traditionally held in such high esteem that is has become sacred.

Political Sacred Cows:
The presidency, the Supreme Court, the Constitution, tax exemption for places of worship, the flag, national holidays, the two-party system, democracy, the welfare system, the present system of states, the right of immigration into the United States, the legal settlement of disputes, the national anthem, social security, the Electoral College

Religious Sacred Cows:
The clergy, the Pope, the cross, the Ten Commandments, Religious holidays, holy places, belief in God, sacred texts

Social Sacred Cows:
Children, weddings, marriage, the right to reproduce, motherhood, the family, doctors, the dead, funerals, burial grounds, mass public education, college education, graduation ceremonies, endangered species, historical buildings, historical statues and symbols, the

Some Taboos:

Economic Taboos:
High prices, low demand for goods and services, disparity between high and low salary scales in the workplace, low salaries, depression, recession, stock market crashes, scarcity

Political Taboos:
High taxes, a police state, union of church and state, poor educational system, poor health care, pollution, slavery

Religious Taboos:
Favoritism of one religion over another by the government, immoral scenes in the mass media, desecration of sacred objects, seizure of religious properties, demands for nondiscriminatory practices against women, gays, etc.

Social Taboos:
Crime, substance abuse, terrorism, disloyalty, corruption, bribery, too rapid a rate of societal change, spousal abuse, child abuse, abuse of senior citizens, cruelty to animals, juvenile delinquency, suicide, scandals. One example of a politician using a bias from the list of sacred cows would be for him or her to stress the American value of mobility. The politician might be trying to persuade the audience to support a freeway expansion.

CHALLENGE TO THE EGO
Some people need to know they've got what it takes. This challenge to the ego technique was made for them I once tried to use this technique on my son. I said that I didn't think he had the strength to lift up the garbage can from the garage and take it out in front of the house

EMPHASIZING CREDENTIALS
Good credentials such as titles, degrees or awards usually impress listeners. A propagandist in speaking on an issue in American history probably would open with something like, "Since receiving my doctorate in history, I've studied American political affairs exhaustively. And I believe that...."

TELL THEM IT’S CONFIDENTAL
In this technique a propagandist says what he or she is about to tell the audience is strictly confidential and privileged information. Since people generally like to think that they are "in the know" and members of the "in crowd" they are likely to accept whatever they are told

STIMULATE CURIOSITY
Whenever a propagandist can stimulate people to be curious, he or she will do it. There is a human tendency to investigate things. Automobile dealers often encourage customers to take a test drive in any one of the new cars on the showroom floor. In a debate, a propagandist might tell his or her audience, "Would you really like to know what's behind my opponent's proposal?"


IMITATE, MIMIC OR MOCK THE OPPONENT
If a propagandist attempts to put down the opposition using this technique, he or she better have some talent in the performing arts.

AD POPULUM
This is a device that relies in featuring whatever is current, well known or popular at the time. Simply put this technique focuses on what the propagandist thinks his or her audience wants to hear and is currently interested or concerned about. e.g. name dropping of current pop star names.

ACTION INVOLVEMENT
If the propagandist has a chance, he or she will enlist the members of the audience in taking some action for a cause. The more people do for a cause, the more they'll likely support it.

PRESENT UTOPIAN OR DYSTOPIAN FANTASIES
A utopia literally means "no place", but generally is taken to mean an imaginary perfect society. A utopian view can paint a wonderful picture of the future in which all of our social, political, economic and environmental problems are solved. A dystopia is the worst imaginable society. If a person is in, let's say, a race for the presidency, he or she might try to portray a dystopia. The trick is to show how terrible the nation will be if the opponent wins the election.

SCARCITY SELLS
Few things attract human interest as the perception of scarcity. Scarce items usually have high value and corporate advertising makes good use of this. A real estate developer can hardly resist saying how few homes are left in his or her development.



6. Techniques of Speaking or Writing Styles


SHOCK `EM
A propagandist will use the shock treatment to catch his or her audience's attention. The propagandist will make a rather outrageous, exaggerated or shocking statement as an attention getter. The propagandist must have the necessary supporting data.

An Environmentalist: "The human race might not see the turn of the next century."

An Educational Reformer: "America's public schools are pretty good - for a third world nation!"

THE SHOTGUN APPROACH
With this technique the propagandist throws at the audience every supporting idea for his or her cause that can be thought up. The hope is that at least some of the ideas will be accepted. The more varied and heterogeneous the audience is, the better the chances to get ideas across.

EMPHASIZE ONE POINT
With this technique the propagandist selects what he or she feels is the strongest argument supporting the position being taken on a subject. All other supporting arguments are excluded, aiding penetration. Abraham Lincoln debated using this approach. He was seriously opposed to slavery and in his speeches he hammered away at the problem relentlessly.

BREAK THE ICE
The propagandist can warm up an audience to better accept the message being delivered by first telling a joke or amusing story. The audience will be more receptive to the message once their tensions are relieved.

START COLD, GET WARM AND END HOT
I've seen motion pictures of Adolf Hitler making speeches where he used this technique to influence the crowd. He would begin calmly, like an old kindly grandfather, to slowly address his audience. Then he would begin speaking a little faster and louder and with a notable increase in enthusiasm. He would end his speech by screaming at the crowd while gesturing forcibly and using his fists to pound the podium. The crowd seemed to have accompanied the Fuehrer in his mood swings and went wild with cheers and applause.

BUILDING THE MESSAGE AROUND A PROVERB
A proverb is a short, pithy saying that expresses a well known truth or fact in the minds of many people.

Proverb: Only the educated are free.
Possible Use: A campaign for increased aid to education.

Proverb: Never open the door to a little vice lest a great one enter with it.
Possible Use: Someone speaking out against the legalization of marijuana.

USING GESTURES AND PROPS
Who hasn't seen finger-pointing, clenched fists, chest and podium pounding, thumbs either up or down, arms akimbo and other shows of facial expression and body language? The art of propaganda resembles dramatic art in some ways. Image making is the rage today and props are necessary to this enterprise. Some often seen props are listed as follows:
insignias: flags, medals, ribbons, hats, uniforms, logos, badges of authority, etc. large picture backdrops

MAKING A PRE-EMPTIVE STRIKE
A propagandist attacks his or her opposition on the point that is central to their case before they the opposition opens their mouths. In this technique the first affirmative debater challenges or answers the opposition's strongest argument. In this way it's possible to defuse the thrust of the opponent's attack.


7. Techniques That Exlploit Reason or Common Sense

USING THE SOCRATIC METHOD
Socrates (469 B.C.- 399 B.C.) is the famous Greek philosopher who developed what is now called the Socratic Method.

This technique works well with two or a few people in a philosophical conversation. It is assumed the terms being used in the discussion are well understood and have clear definitions accepted by all the participants. As the discussion progresses, it becomes apparent, through careful questioning, that the definitions of terms differed or had minor flaws. It would then become apparent that true knowledge of an issue or problem being discussed was inadequate to reach a sound conclusion. As more time passes, the definitions of terms would improve becoming more universal and applicable to all examples.

No satisfactory conclusion might be reached, but the goal of finding true and universal definitions would be furthered. In the Socratic Method, ignorance must be acknowledged, to do otherwise is to take a "know-itall position. Propagandists can use the Socratic way of arguing with someone who brings up ideas such as there should be a drug free America, family values must be upheld, Caucasians are a superior race or males should dominate females. In each of these statements, definitions would be carefully examined through extensive questioning. The discussion leader could start by asking questions such as "What is a drug?", "What are family values?," "What is a Caucasian?", "What does it mean to be superior?" "What is a male and a female?" and "What does it mean to dominate?".

This technique is designed to break apart vague definitions used by opponents. If the propagandist is lucky, he or she may put the opposition on the ropes if they haven't done their homework on the terms they use. The opponents may try several countermeasures. One might be to use a non-sequitur and another might be to answer the question with another question. The skilled propagandist always tries to prepare for his or her opponent's countermeasures.

USE METAPHORS AND SIMILES
A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a term is transferred from the object it ordinarily designates to an object it may designate only by implicit comparison or analogy. e.g That symphony orchestra sounds like a thousand meowing cats all out of tune. She's as nutty as the topping on a chocolate sundae. The new dog was running around the yard like a balloon that suddenly lost all of its air.

HELP FROM GIANTS OF THE PAST AND PRESENT
A politician raging against his or her opponent who holds high office might quote the famous statement made by Lord Aston, "All power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely."

CHOOSE WORDS WISELY
Propagandists tailor their vocabulary to suit their target audiences. Foreign words and phrases are avoided unless the audience is a group of scholarly folks. If propagandist's choices of words makes them incomprehensible to their listeners, they'll usually lose them.

YES, BUT...
Occasional conspicuous candor can help build a propagandist's long range credibility. Josef Goebbels, Nazi Germany's propaganda chief, practiced candor on the German people. He said yes, we are losing the war, but secret weapons being developed will turn things around. Because of his seeming honesty, many people in Nazi Germany believed him.

Amazon.com: Propaganda Techniques (9781410704962): Henry T. Conserva: Books Amazon.com: Propaganda Techniques (9781410704962): Henry T. Conserva: Books
 
Old February 28th, 2010 #2
Wayne Pyrz.
Junior Member
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Posts: 6
Wayne Pyrz.
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All of the enemy tactis are employed on this forum here,..

http://community.beliefnet.com/go/fo...ivity_Movement

Get on there and do pro-White posts,.
Defend your race,..
 
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