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Old July 28th, 2005 #1
Jenab
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Default Christianity and the Amanita muscara (fly agaric) mushroom

http://www.amanitashop.com/amanita-jesus/jesus.htm

Amanita muscaria and Cannabis sativa - Keys to Christianity?

by Jason Fitzgerald


The Rig-Veda, one of humanity's oldest scriptures, contains over 1,000 poems extolling the merit and virtues of 'King Soma', who is portrayed as a lightning-born, mountain-residing deity and a urine-tinged elixir of health & strength, as well as being praised as the direct means of communion with the Divine and as the supreme poetic & musical inspiration.

R. Gordon Wasson's Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality 1969) identifies Soma as a mixture of Amanita muscaria, a mushroom found under conifer trees having a blood-red cap spotted with white thornlike crusts, and the resinous flowers of Cannabis sativa, commonly known as 'marijuana'.

Image:
http://www.erowid.org/plants/amanita..._muscaria1.jpg

'Muscimol, the psychoactive element of Amanita muscaria, remains active in urine for up to seven re-ingestions'

Wasson notes ancient Hindu scriptures depicting urine drinking as bestowing spirituality, just as Siberian shamans drink the urine of Amanita muscaria-fed reindeer which exhibit appropriate signs of mushroom intoxication in order to gain insight and wisdom. This is because muscimol, the psychoactive element of Amanita muscaria, remains active in urine for up to seven re-ingestions or for use by others, which the shamans drink as a holy wine, the epitome of true transubstantiation.

(Wasson's archive of research, writings & correspondence is maintained by Harvard University's Herbarium Library and can be viewed by appointment only. Contact 617 495 2366.)

John Marco Allegro used Wasson's theory and comparative linguistics to decipher the Gospels of Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls. He was summarily dismissed from the translation team for these documents upon publishing his findings in The Sacred Mushroom & the Cross 1970).

Clark Heinrich published his further research on entheogens - organic substances which enhance feelings of the Divine residing within those who partake - in Strange Fruit - Alchemy & Religion, the Hidden Truth 1995, Bloomsbury Press), explicating the case for the Amanita muscaria as the interpretive key to the mythic symbolisms of the Vedas, Torah and Talmud and Gospels of Jesus, as well as the true identity of the Philosopher's Stone of Alchemy and the Holy Grail, which Heinrich suggests is simply the chalice-shaped mushroom.

The role of Messiah or "Anointed One" - literally, "one smeared with semen"

Jesus as a symbol of the mushroom


Jesus is portrayed as the Son of God, sent to fulfil the role of Messiah or 'Anointed One' - literally, 'one smeared with semen'. As a mushroom, the Amanita muscaria does not disseminate seeds as plants do, but ejaculates microscopic spores which create a threadlike fungal network at the base of conifer trees from which thunderstorms elicit more mushrooms. Prior to knowledge of spores, lightning was thought to be the source of mushrooms and lightning was considered the fiery progenitive spears of God, hence the phallic fungi were called 'Sons of God'.

The following two Bible quotes are not present in the article and were interpolated here by me: Jerry Abbott.

Jesus answered and said unto her, "If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water." The woman saith unto him, "Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep: from whence then hast thou that living water? Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle?" Jesus answered and said unto her, "Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again: But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life." (John 4:10-14)

In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, "If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water." (John 7:37,38)

The mushroom's spore ejaculate leaves an oily film on the blood-red cap spotted with white thorns, hence the term 'Messiah' ('Anointed One') and allusions to thistle-entwined, bloody-browed sacrifices, such as the miraculous 'Ram' of Abraham (Genesis 22:13) and Jesus the thorn-crowned 'Lamb of God'.

'Mushrooms were also seen as "winged" creatures, or crowned by a cloudy cap or "halo", each carrying a "message" from God'

Mushrooms were also seen as 'winged' creatures, or crowned by a cloudy cap or 'halo', each carrying a 'message' from God, the very definition of an 'Angel'. Some mushrooms were 'good' or nutritious, some were 'evil' or poisonous, but Amanita muscaria was considered 'blessed' and capable of bestowing health, strength, inspiration and the power of prognostication.

Ingestion of the Amanita muscaria can revive the deathly ill and enables people to perform unusual feats of strength. The Gnostics used the mushroom to access 'gnosis' or 'sacred knowledge' and become privy to seeing the 'Kingdom at hand.'

The experience can also result in a very deep sleep, giving the appearance that the partaker has died, only to be 'resurrected' as the effect wears off. The decaying mushroom smells like rotting flesh thus attracting flies, hence another term for the mushroom, 'fly agaric'. Flies seem to die on contact with the mushroom, but if observed for a period of about 12 hours, however, the insects experience 'resurrection' and fly away.

As John Allegro points out, the 'Cross' is merely the cuneiform symbol of the mushroom, just as the 'Asclepius', or snake-entwined staff topped by a winged disc found on nearly all medical facilities, is also just an ancient symbol of the mushroom.

Jesus as a symbol of marijuana

Jesus is also portrayed as the offspring of a female virgin named 'Mary', who represents Cannabis sativa or hemp, since female plants are cloistered, or kept separate from male plants, in order to produce more THC, the medicinal chemical found in the resin of Cannabis flowers which are commonly known as marijuana.

'Jesus performs healings astonishingly similar to the confirmed medicinal effects of THC'

Jesus, the offspring of the Blessed Virgin, performs healings astonishingly similar to the confirmed medicinal effects of THC.

Healings of Jesus Diseases THC treats

Blindness Glaucoma

Deafness Tinnitus

Lameness Arthritis

Sickness Nausea; Cramps; Migraine

'Leprosy' Skin Lesions

'Demon-Possession' Epilepsy; Multiple Sclerosis

Not only does Cannabis heal people, it also restores topsoil to poor land such as the Jews were relegated to. Mark 4:3-8, the Parable of the Sower, is a premier hemp reference since (a) hemp seed is the favoured food of most species of bird; (b) hemp grows very quickly (having four seasons per year in climates as diverse as Siberia & Jamaica); and (c) hemp, unlike wheat and other crops, replicates itself 30-, 60- and 100-fold, as any good 'weed' should.

Cannabis was the basis of pre-industrial civilisation, providing Earth's most nutritious food for humans & animals (hemp seed), rope and canvas for tents & clothing ('canvas' being derived from the word 'cannabis'), fuel for heating & cooking (seed oil), the means of fishing & sea travel (sails, rope for rigging and nets, sealant for boats) and wood oil & varnish (aged seed oil), part of the occupational means of a carpenter, which Mary's husband, Joseph, is portrayed as being.

The importance of the Jesus myth

If Jesus is just a fictional personification of psychedelic mushrooms and marijuana, what is the significance of his capital punishment at the hands of civil and religious authorities and his subsequent resurrection celebrated on Easter?

Jesus life and execution symbolise the inherent antagonisms between Earth's organic bounty of food, provisions and medicine plus the natural fact of human mortality versus the pseudo-scarcity economics of the centralised technological state and the empty assurances of human immortality by esoteric ecclesiastic polities, which both profit from human misery and sickness as well as from environmental ignorance and disregard.

By prohibiting and criminalising the very essence of 'Jesus', the modern state fully realises its biblical designation as the 'Anti-Christ', orchestrating the monopolisation of ecology and economy by corporations whose inferior substitutes for botanic resources desecrate the Earth and its inhabitants - an 'abomination causing desolation'.

Ironically, it is very often those who designate themselves as Christians who are most vocal and active in their support for measures to persecute and imprison those who actually know 'Jesus' more intimately than any self-righteous prohibitionist ever could, even as so-called Christians read and study the Gospels of Jesus as printed on the tissue-thin hemp paper used in the majority of modern Bibles (source: Zondervan Books). They reject the true sacrament and settle for stale bread and sour grapes.

'Jesus' resurrection symbolises Earth's faithful yielding of the true sacrament'

Jesus' resurrection symbolises Earth's faithful yielding of the true sacrament as well as the undying hope that humanity might learn to recognise and embrace both the natural means of living and the natural fact of dying and henceforth live abundantly, even under penalty of imprisonment, persecution and death.

In demonstrating that most sacred myths are symbolisms of psychedelic mushroom & marijuana use, Wasson, Allegro and Heinrich undermine claims of unique access to communion with the Divine as well as claims of entitlement to eternal life and bliss made by those who effectively prohibit the easiest means of feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, sheltering the indigent and attending the sick by criminalising the 'soma' (see Note below) of Jesus, King of kings.

Note:'Body' in Greek, Mark 14:22.

Last edited by Jenab; July 28th, 2005 at 09:03 AM.
 
Old July 28th, 2005 #2
Jenab
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http://www.amanitashop.com/amanita-m...anitamyths.htm

The Aryan’s & Soma

To me, the most convincing evidence revealing the identity of Soma lies in the fact that the Aryan’s entered India from the North, from the area of Siberia nearly 4,000 years ago. From this entheogen cult, Hinduism is known to have evolved. The Aryan’s brought their cult to the Middle East as well, where Soma became Haoma. The Rig Veda is lush with references to Soma, and as more and more unbiased scholars look deeply into these sacred texts, they are finding more and more veiled and metaphorical references that were overlooked by translators with specific agendas and biases. None of the above points are disputed among any scholars or translators of the sacred texts; the argument and controversy arises in when the identity of Soma is debated.

Regardless of Soma's true identity, even today, the use of Amanita muscaria in ritual is still widespread amongst numerous Siberian tribes who have been using Amanitas since the dawn of time. Simply stated; they wouldn't still be using this plant if it was deadly toxic, and if it didn't serve some sort of spiritual purpose in their ritual. Whether or not this is the famed Soma, one thing is certain, is that at least for this tribe, Amanita muscaria serves as an important spiritual connector.

The Facts We DO Know

So, despite all of the above, we know that there are tribes in Siberia that have Amanita muscaria as the centerpiece of their religious ceremony to this day. We also know that they prefer to ingest 1-3 mid-size caps about the diameter of the palm of a hand for visionary purposes. We also know that this practice has been going on since before recorded history, and that similar use has been recorded in cultures across the globe, including newly discovered evidence of Native American tribal use of this sacred mushroom. We know that this mushroom grows in North America, Africa, Europe, and Australia.

We know that Ibotenic acid, a crystalline alkaloid, unstable and very fragile, partially converts to Muscimol, the active component in Fly Agaric as the Amanita dries (called decarboxylation). We know that this conversion is possibly aided when the Amanita lies out under a warm sun in nature, or is turned upside down, and placed in a wood oven at about 180 degrees Fahrenheit by humans, and that it is crucial for the juices to stay in the cap as it dries if preservation of Muscimol is the desired goal.

We also know that the human body not only converts Ibotenic acid to Muscimol, and that it also separates the Muscimol from the Ibotenic acid, excreting pure Muscimol in the urine of the person that ingested it. Ibotenic acid, which causes the uncomfortable and less desirable physical effects (sweating/nausea), is absorbed by the ingesting body, and the Muscimol, the active component that produces the visionary states, passes unadulterated through the urine.

It is also known that the uncertainty of the Amanita muscaria intoxication is a result of an unknown mixture of Ibotenic acid and Muscimol in the Amanita at the point of ingestion. There is little scientific evidence on how to best convert Ibotenic acid into Muscimol, which part of the Amanita that has the most Ibotenic acid and Muscimol, the most fertile ground for Amanitas with the highest concentration of Ibotenic acid and Muscimol, as well as the optimum time of year to harvest Amanitas to preserve the greatest quantity of Ibotenic acid and Muscimol. Any statements that claim to know the truth regarding this at the time of this writing, is speaking from pure speculation or personal experience only.

Personal experience shows that Fly Agaric from earlier in the harvest season may be more potent, but this is purely speculation. It also shows that dehydrating Amanitas is the best way to preserve the Amanitas, rather than drying them in the sun, over an open flame, or in an oven. Furthermore, it shows that Fly Agaric caps are indeed more potent than stems, but it doesn’t show that the red lining of the cap is more potent than the entire cap itself. Personal experience has also shown that boiling seems to decrease potency, and that simply re-hydrating in water and eating the re-hydrated cap, or the squeezing out of its reconstituted juices provide the most desirable results.

All that being said, the author does not encourage, endorse, or recommend the ingestion of Amanita muscaria. SPECIFICALLY, AMANITA MUSCARIA IS LISTED AS A POISON BY THE FDA. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO INGEST THIS PLANT OR INTRODUCE IT INTO THE HUMAN BODY IN ANY FORM. Equally important, though, is dispelling the rumors surrounding the toxicity of this sacred plant: Drawing from a large body of research regarding the intentional ingestion of Amanita muscaria over thousands of years; there have been only two reported deaths, and both of the recorded deaths involved old and infirm individuals who ingested a large amount of mushrooms. The ingestion of any drug, medicinal or ludible, can cause death if ingested or given at the wrong time.

The most deaths from mushroom poisonings does occur from poisonings from the Amanita genus, but it is the Amanita’s related cousins that are poisonous, NOT the Amanita muscaria or the Amanita pantherina. Mycologists often choose to err on the side of caution, and therefore have labeled the entire genus as poisonous, much to the joy of myself and countless others. The Amanita bisporigera, Amanita virosa, Amanita verna, and the infamous Amanita phalloides (Death Cap) are the most dangerous of the Amanitas, but they are easily differentiated from the Amanita muscaria, because none of them have the beautiful red cap with white spots.

Last edited by Jenab; July 28th, 2005 at 09:06 AM.
 
Old July 28th, 2005 #3
Antiochus Epiphanes
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there are many links between religion and psychotropic drugs. Wine at communion is a common example, American Indians chewing peyote another, Islamic cultists smoking hashish (assasins) another.

There is an interesting article in TYR 1 or 2 about this topic

http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg...books&n=507846

Here is a thread where we discussed this

http://www.vnnforum.com/printthread.php?t=16436

and a link to stuff about henbane, etc

http://www.erowid.org/experiences/subs/exp_Datura.shtml
 
Old July 28th, 2005 #4
Kind Lampshade Maker
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Jenab
SPECIFICALLY, AMANITA MUSCARIA IS LISTED AS A POISON BY THE FDA. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO INGEST THIS PLANT OR INTRODUCE IT INTO THE HUMAN BODY IN ANY FORM.
The FDA claims a lot of things:
http://www.vnnforum.com/showthread.p...ighlight=drugs
The FDA is run by chemical industrialists who are responsible for many deaths

Quote:
Originally Posted by Jenab"...are the most dangerous of the [I
Amanitas[/I], but they are easily differentiated from the Amanita muscaria, because none of them have the beautiful red cap with white spots..."
Time to break out the red paint & brush.
I'm not a urine drinker myself. At least not yet. But, the Vikings were accused of drinking that of deers.
How about being a good Christian by voting in my poll?
http://www.vnnforum.com/showthread.p...010#post116010
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Last edited by Kind Lampshade Maker; July 28th, 2005 at 11:53 AM.
 
Old July 28th, 2005 #5
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Sounds a lot like a book call The Cross and the Mushroom.
I knew a few neo hippies that had it, I never read it but the story kinda sounds the same.
 
Old July 28th, 2005 #6
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Neo Hippies cut it out please. S.S.
 
Old July 28th, 2005 #7
Jenab
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Kind Lampshade Maker
I'm not a urine drinker myself. At least not yet. But, the Vikings were accused of drinking that of deers.
Other than being disgusting, drinking the piss of deer intoxicated with Amanita muscaria mushrooms would be a way of filtering the psychoactive drug, Muscimol, from its harmful precursor, Ibotenic acid. The deer's liver would take the hit instead of yours. When Sevdalina Pierce was around Hillsboro, she mentioned that the Vikings would use this mushroom to go berserk right before a raid on some coastal village. It made them brave to fight and strong to carry off loot and women. But Sevdi said they boiled the mushroom in water and drank the water. Maybe she just didn't want to tell me about the deer piss part of the process.

Jerry Abbott

Last edited by Jenab; July 28th, 2005 at 04:30 PM.
 
Old July 28th, 2005 #8
Kind Lampshade Maker
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Jenab
"...The deer's liver would take the hit instead of yours..."
The deer's liver is obviously designed to take the abuse. But, I think you are confusíng the aftermath of other Muscaria variants. Indeed, that most dangerous white-colored variety requires a liver transplant for those Homosapiens who consume them.
All in all, without a liver transplant, the eventual death is long and horrible. I think 20 days is the limit. At any rate, I wouldn't wish such a fate on anybody.
If the deer could filter out the nauseating effect of Anamita Muscaria consumption, I'm willing to go that route. But, the deer's gotta be female, or else, no dice

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Old July 28th, 2005 #9
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Very nice, Jenab. Makes sense of the partaking of "flesh and blood". Is this what the various "initiates" are taught? Can you imagine fasting, sleep deprivation, then being given a "potion" to drink?
Using the deer's liver is a novel approach you must admit.Still not interested in drinking piss though.
Brings to mind "seventh son" stuff.
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Last edited by Whirlwind; July 28th, 2005 at 07:08 PM.
 
Old July 28th, 2005 #10
J.P. Slovjanski
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Useless Trivia:

Amanita Muscaria is the mushroom made popular by Super Mario Brothers. Supposedly its effects cause one to see/feel distortions involving size, just as the mushroom in the game makes Mario bigger.
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Old July 28th, 2005 #11
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"The mushroom is Jesus, and Santa Claus is also a mushroom," said lecturer James Arthur. He was referring to "magic" mushrooms such as the red Amanita, which are known to expand human consciousness into mystical or spiritual states.

Arthur contends that the authors of the New Testament, as well as other ancient religious texts, were actually conveying secret knowledge brought on by the mushrooms, such as "the death and rebirth experience," using anthropomorphized characters. He cited the book The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross by John Allegro, as an example of a scholarly exploration of this theory, which he said had been suppressed by the Catholic Church.

James Arthur's website: http://www.jamesarthur.net
 
Old July 28th, 2005 #12
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The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross, that's it, thanks albion.

I knew it was something like that. I was morphing the title with The Cross and the Switchblade, lol.
 
Old July 29th, 2005 #13
Jenab
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Kind Lampshade Maker
The deer's liver is obviously designed to take the abuse. But, I think you are confusíng the aftermath of other Muscaria variants. Indeed, that most dangerous white-colored variety requires a liver transplant for those Homosapiens who consume them.
You might be thinking of Amanita virosa, or A. verna, or A. phalloides, which are lighter in color than A. muscaria. The first two of those is actually white, while the third is white when young (the cap becomes pale yellow when older).

Quote:
Originally Posted by Kind Lampshade Maker
All in all, without a liver transplant, the eventual death is long and horrible. I think 20 days is the limit. At any rate, I wouldn't wish such a fate on anybody.
Here's what I found:

Quote:
Originally Posted by IPCS INCHEM
9.3 Course, prognosis, cause of death

The course of amanitin intoxication has 3 chronological 3 phases:

a) A latent phase of approximately 6 - 24 hours (mean 12.3
hours), rarely extending to 48 hours.

b) A gastrointestinal phase with abdominal pain, vomiting and
diarrhoea causing dehydration, hypovolaemia, electrolyte and
acid-base disorders. This phase usually lasts 2-3 days.

c) An hepatic phase which begins 36 - 48 hours after ingestion.
The pre-icteric phase can only be detected by an increase in
serum transaminases. Hepatitis becomes clinically evident with
the onset of jaundice on the 3rd -4th day after ingestion. In
severe intoxications, patients develop fulminant hepatitis with
hepatic coma, bleeding and anuria. When liver damage is
reversible, patients usually make a slow and steady recovery. In
fatal cases death occurs within 6 - 16 days (mean 8 days).

Prognosis: An analysis of the literature shows that the factors
most likely to indicate a poor prognosis in Amanita hepatitis are
peak prothrombin time > 100 sec; factor V < 10%; lactic
acidosis; gastrointestinal bleeding; and age < 12 years. Other
criteria, such as the duration of the latency period; the peak
serum concentration of aminotransferases; and amanitin analysis
are not useful for prognosis. Orthotopic liver transplantation
should be considered in patients with poor prognosis criteria.

In a study of 205 amanita intoxications, the gastrointestinal
syndrome was present in 199 patients and hepatitis in 198; 52
patients developed hepatic coma and the overall mortality was
22.4% (Floersheim et al, 1982)

9.4 Systematic description of clinical effects

9.4.1 Cardiovascular

In the gastrointestinal phase, vomiting and diarrhoea can
produce severe fluid losses resulting in hypovolaemic shock
with tachycardia and a fall in central venous pressure.
Functional reversible renal failure often accompanies
hypovolaemic shock secondary to gastrointestinal fluid loss.

When shock occurs in the hepatitic phase, it is mainly due
to haemorrhage secondary to severe coagulation disorders.
Cardiovascular collapse also accompanies severe hepatic
failure in the terminal phase.

9.4.2 Respiratory

Respiration is usually normal but hyperventilation
accompanies fulminant hepatitis. Respiratory failure with
hyperventilation or apnoea may occur in patients presenting
with hepatic coma and has a poor prognosis.


9.4.3 Neurological

9.4.3.1 CNS

Neurologic symptoms are related to hepatic
encephalopathy which usually occurs 5 - 6 days after
ingestion. Somnolence and confusion are the first
signs, and coma usually follows. Convulsions may be
observed in hepatic coma.

In severe hepatic failure, coma may also be due to
hypoglycaemia secondary to disordered glucose
metabolism.

9.4.3.2 Peripheral nervous system.

No data available.

9.4.3.3 Autonomic nervous system

No data available.

9.4.3.4 Skeletal and smooth muscle

No data available.

9.4.4 Gastrointestinal

Gastrointestinal symptoms appear after a latent period of 6
- 24 hours (mean 12.3 hours). In a study of 205 Amanita
intoxications, gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 199
patients (Floersheim et al, 1982).

a) Nausea, vomiting, colic.

There is a sudden onset of colicky abdominal pain rapidly
followed by nausea, frequent vomiting and diarrhoea.

b) Diarrhoea

In most cases, diarrhoea is severe, watery and cholera-like.
In the absence of fluid replacement, diarrhoea rapidly
induces dehydration, haemoconcentration and hypovolaemic
shock. Diarrhoea may persist for 2 - 4 days.

9.4.5 Hepatic

Clinical signs of hepatocellular damage usually develop on
the 3rd to 4th day after ingestion. Clinical presentation
may only include a mild jaundice and a mild hepatomegaly.

In severe cases, hepatitis follows a fulminant course with
marked jaundice and hepatic coma and may be accompanied by
renal failure and cardiovascular collapse. In fatal cases,
death occurs within 6 - 16 days (mean 8 days).


9.4.6 Urinary

9.4.6.1 Renal

Two types of renal failure may be observed. During the
gastrointestinal phase a functional renal failure is
frequent. It is associated with hypovolaemia and is
secondary to fluid loss and to hypoperfusion of the
kidneys. It may improve if dehydration and
hypovolaemia are corrected aggressively.

Anuria and renal failure may occur during the third
phase of poisoning together with severe hepatitis,
hepatic coma and haemorrhage.

Serious kidney complications may be avoided by
administration of fluids (Constantino et al, 1978,
Vesconi et al, 1985). A direct nephrotoxic effect of
amatoxins has not been proven in human intoxication.

9.4.6.2 Others

No data available.

9.4.7 Endocrine and reproductive systems

No data available.

9.4.8 Dermatologic

Mild jaundice with icteric sclerae is present in the hepatic
phase.

9.4.9 Eyes, ear, nose, throat: local effects

Eyes:Scleral icterus occurs.

Nose:Nasal haemorrhage may occur in patients with
coagulation disorders secondary to severe
hepatocellular damage. If intubation is necessary, the
nasal route should be avoided because it may induce
severe local haemorrhage.

9.4.10 Haematological

Severe hepatocellular damage may result in severe
haemorrhage.

Usually the earliest indication of coagulopathy is
persistent bleeding from IV puncture sites (Bivins et al,
1985). Other bleeding, epistaxis and gastrointestinal
haemorrhage may occur.

These are due to marked coagulation defects secondary to
impaired synthesis of clotting factors. This indicates a

poor prognosis. (Floersheim, 1987).


9.4.11 Immunologic

No data available.

9.4.12 Metabolic

9.4.12.1 Acid based disturbances

In the gastrointestinal phase, metabolic acidosis may
occur as the result of bicarbonate loss in diarrhoea;
in later stages, acidosis may be due to hepatic
failure.

9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances

Dehydration and hypovolaemia

The gastrointestinal syndrome often results in marked
dehydration and hypovolaemia with haemoconcentration
and functional renal failure.

Electrolyte disturbances

Hypokalaemia is particularly common in the
gastrointestinal phase.

9.4.12.3 Others

Glucose

Glucose metabolism is often disturbed in severe hepatic
failure. Spontaneous hypoglycaemia results from
impaired glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis (Bivins et
al, 1985).

Hepatic enzymes

Elevated serum transaminase, LDH and serum bilirubin
are the first and best indicators of liver damage and
should be monitored throughout the course of the
illness. Hepatic enzymes usually reach a peak after 60
- 72 hours and then decrease. Enzyme levels may be
relatively low in massive liver necrosis (Bivins et al,
1985).

Coagulation parameters

Coagulation disorders indicate hepatic insufficiency.
Levels of clotting factors synthesized by the liver,
such as fibrinogen and prothrombin, may be decreased.
A prothrombin level below 10 per cent indicates a poor
prognosis (Floersheim 1987)


9.4.13 Allergic reactions

No data available.


9.4.14 Other clinical effects

Amatoxin does not affect temperature regulation directly but
temperature disorder may occur in severe hepatic failure
with encephalopathy.

9.4.15 Special risks: pregnancy, breast feeding, enzyme
deficiency

Pregnancy: Kauffmann et al, (1978) reported a Amanita
phalloides poisoning in a 25 year old woman at 9 weeks
gestation. The patient developed a toxic hepatitis
(transaminase 1800 U/l). After life threatening maternal
illness was overcome, a therapeutic abortion was carried out
at 12 weeks gestation. Histologic examination of the foetal
liver showed cellular damage related to amanitin toxicity.
Amatoxins therefore cross the placenta barrier in
concentrations sufficient to affect the foetus.

Breast-feeding: Because amatoxins are excreted in breast
milk, nursing mothers who have ingested Amanita, whether
they are symptomatic or not, should be told to stop nursing
until it is determined whether or not they have been
poisoned (Bivins et al, 1985).
The authors for the above were: A Jaeger , F Flesch, Ph Sauder, and J Kopferschmitt of Centre Anti-Poisons, Hospices Civils de Strasbourg, 67091 Strasbourg Cédex, France.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Kind Lampshade Maker
If the deer could filter out the nauseating effect of Anamita Muscaria consumption, I'm willing to go that route. But, the deer's gotta be female, or else, no dice
Shorter urethra to be defiled in, yeh.

Jerry Abbott
 
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