‘Kersenski was elected Premier and the order was issued to work energetically. Students and army people were clamoured to put an end to the war. Many Jewish boys became cadets and some Jews were promoted to officers. All prices rose, the value of the rouble fell rapidly. Among the members of the Government were ministers of the Union of the Rural Self-Government and representatives of the War Industries Committee among them were two Jewish Ministers.’
‘President Sverdlov had taken over Count Lvov’s place. The Sverdlov brothers were children of a foreman in a gas works, and who later owned a ship in Nizhni Novgorod. Both brothers were socialists and had visited Lenin in Switzerland. And this Sverdlov, told Zool, that they had decided to make me head of “GLAV-VOD”.
In peace-time, this was a medical and pharmaceutical department belonging to the Ministry of Communications and Roads. This post had been occupied by a qualified doctor of medicine who had the honorary rank of general. Under this department came all the hospitals situated on the rivers Volga, Kama, Don, also some parts of Siberia and Southern Russia.’
‘When we were alone in his room, I asked him for a certificate to enable my children, under the supervision of Comrade Schapiro, to leave Moscow and re-cooperate in the Koumiss. This certificate was issued and on it was written that they should be given any assistance that they might require.’
‘My wife’s cousin, a Mr. Perez was shot, when a million dollars was found hidden in his place, but the local people and the emigrants thought that this wave of terror would not last and many accepted jobs with the Communists and were offered high positions.’
‘Next morning, I went into town to get a permit to cross the frontier. Great difficulties were made to obtain this document. Crowds were sitting and awaiting their turn. I showed my identification card to one of the officials, but was not called in for a very long time. At long last my turn came to see the official in charge. It was a 17 to 18 year old Jewish Bundist, who was issuing passes.’
‘Where the Ukrainian soldiers and Cossacks conquered a locality or town they treated the Jews very badly and therefore the Jewish population was jubilant when the Communists arrived.’
‘A week later documents arrived from the headquarters of the Plen-Bezh, indicating that I was nominated head of the Economic and Pharmaceutical Department of the Plen-Bezh in Moscow.’
‘At about eleven o’clock in the morning, I went to introduce myself to the Plen-Bezh Headquarters. I wanted to hear more about my future duties there and to see who was in charge. It was the wife of the writer, Radek (he was imprisoned in Berlin at the time). Mrs. Radek was a doctor by profession and her maiden name was Elisabeth Marvikyevna Rabinovitch. She received me very politely and told me that I had been nominated head of the economic and pharmaceutical department of the Plen-Bezh head office and she suggested I should go down to the pharmaceutical department and have a word with the present manager, Comrade Shlosberg and then report back to her at about two o’clock.’
‘Many succeeded in making a fortune during this period, but later their money was taken from them and they were exiled to Siberia. Many of them died during the construction of the Moskva-Volga Canal, others were sent to Siberia and died there of hunger and cold. My cousin Grisha Ratner was exiled to Siberia for five years and also several of my wife’s relatives.’
‘I consider that the immediate suppression of Bolshevism is the greatest issue now before the world, not even excluding the war which is still raging, and unless, as above stated, Bolshevism is nipped in the bud immediately, it is bound to spread in one form or another over Europe and the whole world, as it organised and worked by Jews who have no nationality, and whose one object is to destroy for their own ends the existing order of things.’
‘Although five prominent literary figures were among those indicted – the Yiddish poets Peretz Markish, Leyb Kvitko, David Hofshteyn, and Itsik Fefer and the novelist David Bergelson – the remaining ten defendants were not writers at all but were connected in various ways to the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, a group that the regime had created during World War II to encourage Western Jewish support for the alliance with the Soviet Union.
Several defendants were famous Soviet personalities. Solomon Lozovsky, who turned out to be the principal defendant, had been a long-time member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and was deputy people’s commissar for foreign affairs of the USSR throughout the war. Boris Shimeliovich had been the medical director of one of Moscow’s most prestigious hospitals. Lina Shtern, renowned for her pathbreaking work in biochemistry and medicine, was the first woman member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. And Benjamin Zuskin was the premier actor at the State Jewish Theater in Moscow, where he and Solomon Mikhoels had created a world-renowned repertory; after the death of Mikhoels in January 1948, Zuskin became the theater’s artistic director.’
‘The trade-union activist Joseph Yuzefovich; the journalist and translator Leon Talmy; the lawyer Ilya Vatenberg and his wife. Khayke Vatenberg-Ostrovskaya, who worked as a translator for the JAC; the editor Emilia Teumin; and the party bureaucrat Solomon Bregman, who joined the JAC in 1944 and quickly became an informer, sending denunciations about Jewish “nationalism” within the committee to party officials. Talmy and the Vatenbergs had lived for many years in the United States before deciding to move to Russia in the 1930s out of loyalty to communism.’
‘The Jewish section of the Communist Party (the notorious Yevsektsiya) was the driving force behind the broader party directives for the Jewish minority.’
‘Asking to see him in private Markish showed Lederman an article by the writer Moyshe Nadir in which Nadir explained why he had broken his long-standing ties with the American Communist Party and the Yiddish communist newspaper the Morgen Freiheit (Morning Freedom) following the Hitler-Stalin pact.’
‘On the other hand it seemed reasonable to put forward figures like the historian and philosopher Abram Deborin, the ophthalmologist Mikhail Averbakh, and the violinist David Oistrakh. All were Jewish and all seemed prominent enough in their fields, at least inside the country, to appear alongside Mikhoels, Markish, and the others. But the proposal also listed General Yakov Smushkevich – a renowned air force officer who had earlier, under the pseudonym General Douglas, been sent to Spain to assist Republican forces and who was appointed chief commander of the Soviet Air Force in 1939 following his heroic conduct at the battle of Khalkin Gol, where Soviet troops fought Japanese forces in Mongolia. Smushkevich had been wounded and was twice awarded the medal Hero of the Soviet Union.’
‘Although Henryk Erlich and Viktor Alter had escaped the Germans after the invasion of Poland, Stalin’s secret police arrested them in the fall of 1939. Denounced to Soviet officials by a Polish Jewish communist, Erlich was detained at the train station in Brest-Livtosk. Alter was arrested in Kowel in western Volhynia. But Stalin released them two years later in the wake of Hitler’s advance. By the fall of early 1941, with the Red Army in full retreat, Stalin had no choice but to improve relations with the Western powers. Erlich and Alter enjoyed excellent contracts with labor groups in the West. With their release, Stalin hoped to reassure their supporters and enlist both men in Soviet plans against Hitler. At the behest of the Kremlin, Erlich and Alter proposed a committee that would involve Soviet Jews and refugees from German-occupied countries. They even suggested the formation of a Jewish Legion in the Red Army to be made up of American volunteers.’
‘Jewish organizations in America lent their names and resources to making the visit a success. A National Reception Committee, head by Albert Einstein and B. Z. Goldberg, who were both sympathetic to the Soviet Union. Goldberg in particular was an articulate fellow traveller, an adept and prolific Yiddish journalists whose professional visibility was enhanced by his marriage to the daughter of the famous Yiddish writer Sholem Aleichem.
Mainstream Jewish organizations like Hadassah, the Jewish National Fund, the Zionist Organization of America, and B’nai Brith also welcomed Mikhoels and Feder, as did James Rosenberg of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.’
‘The Red Army had just inflicted a mortal blow to the Wehrmacht, so it was altogether natural for American Jewry and sections of the broader American public to greet them with profound enthusiasm. Wherever they visited – Philadelphia, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Boston – they were welcomed with fund-raising dinners and testimonials. Mass rallies were organized in Los Angeles and San Francisco. In Hollywood they met Thomas Mann, Theodore Dreiser, Upton Sinclair, Charlie Chaplin, and Edward G. Robinson. In New York, Jewish furriers presented them with three specially made, luxurious fur hats and coats, one for each for Stalin himself, Mikhoels, and Fefer.’
‘Rabbi Stephen Wise denounced “Jewish Trotskyites” for their attacks on Mikhoels and Fefer. B .Z Goldberg praised “the great leader Marshal Stalin,” and James Rosenberg proclaimed that “Russia has given life, asylum, bread and shelter to a vast Jewish population.”’
‘Pravda quoted the belief of Nahum Goldmann, the leader of the World Jewish Congress, that the visit by Mikhoels and Fefer would reinforce ties between Soviet and world Jewry. The newspaper also made clear that the Polo Grounds rally had been the largest pro-Soviet rally ever held in the United States and that, for the most part, it had been organized by well-known American Jewish organizations.’
(211) Moses Gurwitsch, Dora Wirth (Trans.), 1958, ‘The Autobiography of a Russian Jew’
, Vol. I, 1st Edition, Self-Published: Liverpool, p. 62
(212) Ibid, p. 66. Gurwitsch means here that he; a jew who had owned a substantial Pharmacist business in Imperial Russia, was appointed to be the head of ‘GLAV-VOD’
. The reference to the Sverdlov brothers is also to two prominent jews; Yakov Sverdlov (an important member of the Bolshevik Central Committee, the man who gave the order to execute Tsar Nicholas II and his family and who was presumably the one who appointed Gurwitsch) and Zinovy [formerly Yeshua Zalman] Sverdlov who became a ‘French’ general after getting himself baptised as an Eastern Orthodox Christian.
(213) Ibid, p. 69. It is important to note that the significance of this comment is the carte blanche nature of this order and that Gurwitsch’s children were placed under the care of another communist jew; Genrikh Schapiro who was also given (according to p. 83) a job managing a soap factory by Gurwitsch and another important socialist jew named Dr. Lev Naumovitch Geller [Schapiro had previously been favoured by two other jews named Schlossberg with the running of a cotton oil factory], who was given this carte blanche to do what he thought necessary for his and their comfort (probably at the expense of the local population).
(214) Ibid, p. 70. This quote points to the fact that rich jews were also targeted by the Bolsheviks, but Gurwitsch also indirectly implies that many jews; like him, were offered and took high positions in the local and national government under the Bolsheviks.
(215) Ibid, p. 71
(216) Ibid, p. 81
(217) Ibid, p. 86. This is another example; similar to n. 212 above, of a jew; Gurwitsch, being appointed to high office under the early Bolshevik regime.
(218) Ibid, p. 88. The wife of the prominent jewish communist Karl Radek was herself jewish and ‘Comrade Shlosberg
’ was also jewish as is indicated down the page. ‘Comrade Shlosberg’
is then revealed on pp. 88-89 to be one of the jewish brothers who ran the cotton oil factory that Genrikh Schapiro managed.
(219) Ibid, p. 90. The interesting implication made by Gurwitsch is that many jews made great fortunes under the Bolshevik regime of Lenin; particularly in the era of the New Economic Plan or NEP which ‘re-introduced’
a limited form of capitalism, and that these newly rich jews were swept up in Stalin’s purges of the ‘Kulaks’
. This might suggest that composition of the ‘Kulak’
class; as defined by Stalin’s regime, would be an interesting subject for research and could potentially provide an earlier precedent for Stalin’s supposed targeting of the jewish population as an ‘enemy wit
hin’ between 1948 and his death in 1953.
(220) HMSO, 1919, ‘Collection of Reports on Bolshevism in Russia’
, 1st Edition, His Majesty’s Stationary Office: London, p. 3/Doc. 6. The author of this report was Sir M. Findlay. I have marked this quotation as potentially unreliable, because it seems to reference the ‘Commissar Lists’
, which were widely believed at the time the work was written and published, but which subsequently have been debunked by scholars as being without value.
(221) Vladimir Naumov, Joshua Rubenstein (Eds.), Laura Wolfson (Trans.), 2005, ‘Stalin’s Secret Pogrom: The Postwar Inquisition of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee’
, 2nd Edition, Yale University Press: New Haven, pp. 2-3. I cite only a few relevant passages of this work, but the material contained in this book; in both the first (i.e. the 2001 edition) and second [which is an abridged] editions is of the first importance in forming an accurate and coherent anti-Semitic interpretation of the Soviet Union during the post-war period of Stalin’s rule.
(222) Ibid, p. 3. It should be noted that all those mentioned by Rubenstein were jewish.
(223) Ibid, p. 5
(224) Ibid, p. 6. Moyshe Nadir was the nom de plume of the well-known communist jewish writer Isaac Reiss.
(225) Ibid, p. 8
(226) Ibid, p. 9
(227) Ibid, p. 15. It should be noted that this refers to the visit of representatives of Soviet jewry to the United States in 1943. All those mentioned are jewish and in addition it should be noted that James Rosenberg headed the United States delegation to the United Nations from 1947 to 1948 and was instrumental in getting the ‘Convention against Genocide’
adopted. We may in addition quote Mark Ewell’s excellent summation of the communist and jewish role in the United Nations to give a short explanation of this: ‘On the other hand, there are organizations such as the Consultative Council of Jewish Organizations, the World Jewish Congress and the B’nai Brith which are not ashamed of the part they have played in the U.N. work relating to human rights. In fact, The Jewish Chronicle has told us that the larger Jewish Organizations with consultative status “come into the councils of the U.N. not just with views but with complete drafts and arguments which they place before the delegates and the Secretariat as a basis for work.”
Elsewhere we can read of the Jewish claim to having played the major part in disseminating the ideals of the Declaration of Human Rights. But, in the view of the enormous threat to humans rights which our study of the Draft Covenants reveals, these claims are a little unfortunate. It is indeed understandable that Jewish lawyers should be particularly interested in the battle for human rights for Jews have suffered time and time again when these rights have been ignored. But, so far, their experts have helped to forge an instrument which is ready-made for the use of international tyranny.’
(Mark Ewell, 1964, ‘Manacles for Mankind: An analysis of the UNO’s championship of Human Rights’
, 1st Edition, Britons: London, pp. 54-55)
(228) Naumov, Rubenstein, Op. Cit., p. 15. We should note that Thomas Mann’s left-wing wife; Katia Pringsheim, was jewish and Edward G. Robinson [nee Emanuel Goldenberg] was actually jewish.
(229) Ibid, pp. 16-17
(230) Ibid, p. 17
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