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Old April 17th, 2011 #32
N.M. Valdez
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N.M. Valdez
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There were no populations of whites in the Americas prior to Scandinavian colonizers. As put in Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas, "Native American populations exhibit almost exclusively five mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (A–D and X). Haplogroups A–D are also frequent in Asia, suggesting a northeastern Asian origin of these lineages. However, the differential pattern of distribution and frequency of haplogroup X led some to suggest that it may represent an independent migration to the Americas. Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models." More to the point, "In this study, we analyze 86 mtDNA genomes (58 of them new) belonging to all five major Native American haplogroups (A2, B2, C1, D1, and X2a) to provide a better understanding of the timing and mode of the peopling of the New World. Our analysis suggests a complex scenario for this migration, in which the founding population underwent a moderate bottleneck during the LGM to expand along the continent toward the end of the LGM, around 18 kya, probably via a Pacific coastal route. Furthermore, we support a model in which all mtDNA haplogroups were present in this expansion, thus refuting multiple migration scenarios such as the Solutrean hypothesis."
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