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Old April 24th, 2016 #41
Alex Him
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Orest Kiprensky (IV)



Портрет князя Е. Г. Гагарина ребенком (1816-1817) / Portrait of Prince E.G. Gagarin as a child (1816-1817)

"Prince Eugene G. Gagarin (1811-1886) - Russian diplomat State Councillor (1873).

The representative of the princely family Gagarin. The second son of diplomat - Prince Grigory Ivanovich Gagarin (1782-1837) and Catherine Petrovna Soymonov (1790-1873), brother of G. G. Gagarin.

In 1829-1830 he served in the Russian Embassy in Paris.

In 1832 he was seconded to the Russian mission in Bavaria. A year later he transferred to Vienna, gentleman of the bedchamber. In the mid-1830s - the official of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Councillor.

In 1838 he married Maria Alexandrovna Sturdza (1820-1890), daughter of Prince Alexander Skarlatovicha Sturdza (1791-1854), who belonged to the ancient Moldavian boyar old, and his wife Elizabeth Gufland, the daughter of a German doctor.

After marrying Prince Gagarin retired and his wife settled in Odessa. He left the service, took up farming. He lived a life rich sybarite. In the opinion of those who knew of his contemporaries he was "the happiest man of character."

In 1848 he was allowed to establish from Bessarabia belonged to his estate Mansyrev "warren princely estate" (primogeniture). Behalf of the Imperial decree, dated March 31, 1848, allowed the elder son of his, Prince Grigory Yevgenyevich Gagarin and his descendants, who will own the reserved estate Mansyrev founded by the grandfather of his secret adviser Alexander Skarlatovichem Sturdza, named Prince Gagarin-Sturdza and make bonding conductor coat both names.

Together with his wife founded the Odessa Gagarin Sturdzovskuyu almshouse compassionate sisters and together with Princess E. K. Vorontsova became her guardian in 1854. In 1882 it was granted to the State Councillor. Prince E. G. Gagarin died on August 15 1886 the year in Odessa and was buried in the cemetery of the Church of the Resurrection."

Text by Wikipedia.


Portrait of his brother G. G. Gagarin - http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2020540&postcount=29





Портрет князя Ивана Алексеевича Гагарина (1811) / Portrait of Prince Ivan Alexeevich Gagarin (1811)

"Prince Ivan Gagarin (1771-1832) - privy councilor, senator, theater-goer of the princely family Gagarin.

The son of a privy councilor Prince Alexei Ivanovich of marriage with Irina, the daughter of Prince G. A. Urusov.

January 10, 1773 at the age of two is recorded in the Preobrazhensky regiment and then in 1776 in the Izmailovo Regiment, January 1, 1790 he was promoted to ensign. In the same year he went to the field of military operations against the Turks. From 1 January 1791 - a second lieutenant, and March 25 for taking part in the assault of Ismail was awarded the Order of St. George 4 degrees.

1 January 1792 promoted to lieutenant on 1 January 1796 - in the captain-lieutenant, February 1 of that year granted to the Class 5 chamberlains, and January 3, 1797 - in acting chamberlain 4th grade.

13 June 1799 was appointed equerry courtyard of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, and October 13 was transferred to the same position at the Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna. On October 25, 1810 Gagarin was appointed manager of the court of Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna, who settled with her ​​husband, Prince George Petrovich of Oldenburg, in Tver. Many years of service at the Grand Duchess, gave him her trust and location, was awarded the Order of St. Anna 1st degree (on July 22, 1807, diamonds - 18 on April 1809) and the St. Alexander Nevsky (on March 19, 1813, diamonds - January 11, 1816).

On the day of the entry of Catherine Pavlovna's second marriage 12 January 1816 with the Crown Prince Wilhelm I, Gagarin told enrolled equerry at the Supreme Court.

February 22, 1819 he was appointed a senator with the renaming of privy councilors (formerly the title of Master of the Horse he is allowed to keep the January 28, 1822).

At the end of 1820 Gagarin established with Peter A. Kikin and A. I. Dmitriyev-Mamonov Society for the Encouragement of Artists, which had the goal "to promote the Fine Arts in Russia, approve and encourage the talent of Russian artists", and the opening of the company was a member of its committee.

He attended first in the 2nd ward 5 of the Department of the Senate (1819-1827) and then in the 2nd ward 6 Department. In December 1820 Gagarin was sent to Podolia to study the causes of the epidemic in Bessarabia and review of the measures taken against its spread, as well as for the audit of all the provinces.

14 February 1826 he received for 35 years of service, the Order of St. Vladimir 4 degrees. In 1826 he was appointed to the High Criminal Court in the case of the Decembrists. 13 on April 1829 promoted to real secret advisers.

Prince Gagarin was one of the prominent Masons. Its activities are expressed not only in matters of charity, but also in promoting the Masonic ideas. In the list of founders of the St. Petersburg lodge his name is the first "Russian Eagle". This box was solemnly installed 12 on March 1818 during the joint celebration of both unions Masonic lodges day of accession to the throne of Alexander I of, which was dedicated to the new bed. Worshipful Master in it was presented to Yuri Gagarin, who just managed to give the desired direction of its work, surpassing even expectations "Great control box" and all of the Masonic fraternity. In 1818-1819 years he was considered the best chair master in St. Petersburg. Including an honorary member of the Petersburg lodges "Peter the truth" and "United Friends" and Simbirsk box "The key to virtue."

Ivan Gagarin died on October 20, 1832, buried in Moscow Novospassky monastery. In just a few years before his death bought near Moscow at the Golitsyn estate Pehra-Yakovlevskoye."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Павла Ивановича Гагарина (1823) / Portrait of P. Gagarin (1823)

He was a first son of Prince Ivan Alexeevich Gagarin.

Pavel Ivanovich Gagarin service began with 24 years in the College of Foreign Affairs, in a few months left on their own in America, in Philadelphia, where there was a Russian mission in those years. Returning to Russia in 1826, completely left the service and settled in one of his ancestral estates - Sasovo - Tambov province.





Портрет Александра Александровича Челищева (1809) / Portrait of Alexander Chelishchev (1809)

"Alexander Chelishchev (1797-1881) - Captain, party war of 1812; member of the Union of Welfare.

Son of Lt. Gen. Alexander Ivanovich Chelishchev (d. 1821) from his marriage to Maria Nikolaevna Ogareva (1756-1842). Like the older brother Nicholas, he was raised in Page Corps 1808. August 29, 1812 released an ensign in the 49 Jaeger Regiment and was soon involved in the Battle of Maloyaroslavets.

As part of the Silesian army reached Paris. In April 1814 for the differences in the fighting made ​​second lieutenant and transferred to the Life Guards Jaeger Regiment. Since 1817 - a lieutenant, 1820 - Captain.

As a member of the Union of Welfare. March 20, 1822 transferred to the 16th Regiment of Chasseurs, probably in connection with participation in the so-called "norovskoy history". After the dissolution of the Union of Welfare, according to N. M. Muravyov, entered into a secret society, but in matters of fact it was not involved.

After the uprising of the Decembrists Chelishchev escaped punishment, but the investigating committee has collected information about him, and while he was under surveillance. In 1827 he retired with the rank of major.

All subsequent years, he lived on his estate in Medyn County - Kaluga province."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет В. П. Орлова-Давыдова (1828) / Portrait of V. P. Orlov-Davydov (1828)

"Count Vladimir Orlov-Davydov (1809-1882) - (until 1856 - Davydov) - Privy Councillor, Chamberlain, the writer of the kind Davydov. Known Anglomaniac, philanthropist and bibliophile; the owner of a vast fortune. Founder branch Orlov-Davydov.

Vladimir Davydov was born April 23, 1809 and was the son of Peter L. Davydova from his marriage to the daughter of Count Vladimir Grigorievich Orlov - Natalia. His childhood was spent in Italy, where his mother lived, which had poor health. In September 1819 Natalia died. Parenting grandchild engaged Count Orlov.

Vladimir was sent to Britain, where he graduated from the course of the University of Edinburgh with a degree of Doctor of Laws, and then, having moved to London, there was attached to the Russian Embassy. In Scotland B. P. Davydov met with Walter Scott.

Davydov did for . Scott first English translation of "The Tale of Igor's Campaign" (1827). After the death of Scott supported his family financially.

After some time, Davydov moved to Paris, listened to the lectures of Guizot and Cousin and stay there after five years returned to Russia. On the way he stopped in Germany and attended lectures in several university cities. Davydov and visited Weimar, where he was adopted by the Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna. There he became acquainted with Goethe.

Back in Russia, Davydov entered the service. In 1830, when Vladimir was twenty-one, his grandfather gave him possession of the ancestral estate of Orel "Joy". February 29, 1831 the old count died.

Soon Vladimir Davydov went to Italy, where, in Rome, with the painter Bryullov, architect academician Efimov and archaeologist Dr. Kramer, at his own expense undertook a journey to the East, led there travel notes, which were later published as "Travel notes, keeping in stay in the Ionian islands, in Greece, Asia Minor and Turkey in 1835". For that in 1840 he was awarded an honorary scientific degree of the University of Edinburgh. Well familiarized with classical antiquities, Davidov carefully studied them on the spot, and he was able to collect during the journey a lot of valuable manuscripts, mostly, Greek, acquired on Mount Athos.

Upon his return to Russia Davydov was appointed to serve in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and from 1848 to 1852 years, he was a conscientious judge in St. Petersburg. After the death of the last of the kind Orlov - Ekaterina Novosiltseva, March 26, 1856 he was allowed to take the title of Highest and the name of his maternal grandfather, and named Count Orlov-Davydov.

In 1862 he was elected to the St. Petersburg provincial leader of nobility. As a man of European education and humane, he took to heart the many issues of contemporary social life in Russia, and is often served with different notes and proposals to higher authorities. In particular, in behalf of his, he did much to facilitate the everyday life of the peasants, built churches, hospitals, schools. He was a member of the commission for the collection of donations for the starving, who was chairman of the crown prince. From 1866 to 1869 was a member of the Board of Trustees of public charity institutions in St. Petersburg.

An antiques, Count Orlov-Davydov made ​​large donations to various libraries and museums, a library enriched Otradinsky his grandfather's collection of early printed books acquired them from the heirs of the famous collector I. N. Tsar. Erected in Moscow a new estate Spassky. Known for his education, articles on different issues and a major work ( "Biographical sketch c. Vl. Gr. Orlov," Vol. I and II, St. Petersburg., 1878) Count V. Orlov-Davydov December 1, 1878 he was elected honorary member of the Academy of Sciences.

Count Vladimir Orlov-Davydov, died in St. Petersburg, April 24, 1882."

Text by Wikipedia.


Portrait of his wife and daughter - http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2020924&postcount=33





Портрет Н. В. Кочубей (1813) / Portrait of N. Kochubey (1813)

"Countess Natalia V. Stroganov, nee Countess Kochubey (1800-1855) - maid of honor to the Russian court, the owner of the salon, close friend A. Pushkin. Dame of the Order of St. Catherine.

The eldest daughter of Count Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey and Mary Vasilievna, born Vasilchikova. Her early years were spent abroad. Soon after the wedding, which took place in 1799 in the estate of Dikanka, fell out of favor with the Emperor Paul I, Count Kochubey and his wife went to Dresden. Only after the reign of Emperor Alexander I, Viktor returned to the court and was soon summoned his wife and newborn daughter. Due to the proximity of the graph to Alexander I Mariya could occupy an enviable position in the world and at the court.

Most of the 1817 and 1818 years for family reasons Kochubei again held abroad, mainly in Paris. Back in Russia, they settled in the Tsarskoye Selo testify. Soon Natalia was appointed maids of honor.

In 1820 Natalia became the wife of Count A. G. Stroganov. The position and family connections allowed Natalia to take a worthy place in the world.

In 1841, Count Stroganov was dismissed and, together with his family for a few years left Russia, spending the winter in Paris and summer - in the Bohemian waters in Carlsbad, Teplice and Aachen.

In recent years, the life of Natalia was not calm. In 1839, seventeen died daughter, three years - the youngest son, who "on the way from Dresden to Weimar choked on a chicken bone, which gave him the mother herself." In 1853 it lost the second daughter."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет неизвестного молодого человека с папкой (1820) / Portrait of
unknown young man with a folder (1820)






Портрет молодого человека (1828) / Portrait of a young man (1828)





Портрет молодой девушки (1829) / Portrait of a young girl (1829)





Женский портрет (1816-1820) / Portrait of a woman (1816-1820)


 
Old April 24th, 2016 #42
Alex Him
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Orest Kiprensky (V)



Портрет поэта Александра Сергеевича Пушкина (1827) / Portrait of Alexander Pushkin (1827)

http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2011356&postcount=21





Портрет поэта В. А. Жуковского (1816) / Portrait of Vasily Zhukovsky (1816)

http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2021880&postcount=36





Портрет поэта К. Н. Батюшкова (1815) / Portrait of Konstantin Batyushkov (1815)

"Konstantin Nikolayevich Batyushkov (1787-1855) - (Russian: Константи́н Никола́евич Ба́тюшков) was a Russian poet, essayist and translator of the Romantic era. He also served in the diplomatic corps, spending an extended period in 1818 and 1819 as a secretary to the Russian diplomatic mission at Naples."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет К. Н. Батюшкова (1815) / Portrait of Konstantin N. Batyushkov (1815)





Портрет Константина Николаевича Батюшкова (1815) / Portrait of Konstantin Batyushkov (1815)





Портрет И. А. Крылова (1816) / Portrait of Ivan Krylov (1816)

http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2021880&postcount=36





Портрет князя Петра Андреевича Вяземского (1835) / Portrait of Prince Pyotr Andreyevich Vyazemsky (1835)

Пётр Вяземский - (1792–1878).

"Prince Pyotr Vyazemsky was a critic, poet, translator and all-around man of letters. He also wrote diaries chronicling events in Russia for nearly seventy years, from 1813 through 1877. Some of them were later published, and make for interesting reading even today.

Childhood

Vyazemsky was born to an aristocratic family in Moscow. He spent his childhood among well-educated and intelligent peers – from a very early age, he often met outstanding personalities like Zhukovsky and Karamzin who came to visit. He studied at a St. Petersburg boarding school where he learned German, English, Italian and French. Vyazemsky’s father died in 1808, and Pyotr came under the tutelage of Karamzin. He soon started publishing in the magazine The Herald of Europe.

Major critical works

When Vyazemsky returned to Moscow, he volunteered and fought in the battle of Borodino in 1812. He published his first major critical piece, ‘On Derzhavin,’ in 1816. The piece, while informed by Enlightenment principles, was written in Romantic language. In the 1820’s, Vyazemsky argued against critics of Karamzin's ‘History of the Russian State,’ and against critics of Pushkin's romantic poems. He was the first to endorse Russian romanticism openly, and to call for an original national language.

In 1828, he wrote the satirical piece ‘The Russian God,’ in which he raged against the harsh and fallen world. The book was published in 1854 in London with the help of Aleksandr Herzen, a famous Russian writer and thinker, and attracted widespread notoriety. Vyazemsky called the Russian God the god of the homeless, the poor and the starving. By the 1830s, Vyazemsky found little to relate to in the younger generation – he had the great sadness of outliving all of his contemporaries. Though he wrote his most well-known masterpieces in the last years of his life, he had been forgotten and abandoned by critics and the public long before he died.

Vyazemsky spent much time writing his major work of prose – a book on the famous Russian playwright Denis Fonvizin.

He worked in the Ministry of Finance for many years, and headed the bureau of censorship from 1856 to 1858. In 1863, he moved abroad because of poor health. Vyazemsky died in Baden-Baden, Germany, but his body was brought to St. Petersburg and buried there.

Vyazemsky, and the age he helped create

The 19th century began with the ‘Golden Age’ of Russian poetry. The poetry of this period was marked by an aristocratic sensibility, the culture of salons, an aura of friendly intimacy and the genres suited to this ethos – playful and erotic, as well as melancholic and romantic.

Vyazemsky is considered to be the chief journalist of Russian romanticism, though his early poetry is less romantic than his later writings. His early work consisted of rote exercises on poetic styles, or incisive essays on wordplay. His later poetry became more universal, and classical.

Russian romanticism was strongly influenced by cultural developments in the West: “It seems that, in the present age, a poet cannot but echo Byron, as well as a novelist cannot but echo W. Scott, notwithstanding the magnitude and even originality of talent,” Vyazemsky wrote in 1827.

The Pushkin Pleiad

The Pushkin Pleiad, consisting of poets of Pushkin's generation, included Vyazemsky. Literary critics grouped these bright young poets together as a genre unto themselves. Later, that circle of like-minded writers became fractured by different ideals. Vyazemsky was one of the first to appreciate Pushkin’s gifts as a poet. They were introduced to each other in 1816, and became fast friends. Their wry, independent attitudes towards authority and similar tastes brought them together.

When they met, Pushkin was not yet 17. When Vyzemsky married, Pushkin became friends with his wife, Vera, and later with their son, Pavel. Pushkin was more open with Vera, and confided his last secret to her on the eve of his fatal duel. The correspondences between Pushkin and Vyazemsky are a high point of their friendship – the dialogue of very clever men discussing literature and politics. “Often one doesn’t agree with his thoughts but they make think,” Pushkin wrote of Vyazemsky. Pushkin immortalized his name, using a line from a Vyazemsky poem as the epigraph to the first chapter of his famous opera ‘Eugene Onegin.’

Ostafievo Estate

The poet Vyazemsky was the owner of the Ostafievo estate in Moscow region. There, he received Vasily Zhukovsky, Evgeny Baratynsky, Konstantin Batyushkov and many other noted intellectuals of the time. The playwright Aleksandr Gri*boyedov visited the estate and gave a reading of his play, ‘Woe from Wit.’ Pushkin visited in 1830 and 1831, and named Ostafievo the ‘Russian Parnassus.’ Gogol was a guest in the summer of 1849. Pyotr Vyazemsky described the estate’s garden in one of his poems: “Before the house, a rounded meadow; behind, a shady grove, and through the winding, wooded valley a little river flows.”

Pavel Vyazemsky, his father’s only surviving son, continued Ostafievo’s historic and literary traditions. Pavel studied the history of ancient Russia, founded the Society of Ancient Literature, served in Constantinople with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and finished Ostafievo’s Library, turning it into a museum."

Written by Tatyana Klevantseva - http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-...otr-vyazemsky/





Гнедич Николай Иванович (неизвестный художник с оригинала О. А. Кипренского) / Nikolay Ivanovich Gnedich (unknown artist from the original O.A. Kiprensky)

"Nikolay Ivanovich Gnedich (1784-1833) - (Russian: Никола́й Ива́нович Гне́дич) was a Russian poet and translator best known for his idyll The Fishers (1822). His translation of the Iliad (1807–29) is still the standard one.

Alexander Pushkin assessed Gnedich's Iliad as "a noble exploit worthy of Achilles" and addressed to him an epistle starting with lines "With Homer you conversed alone for days and nights..."

He also wrote Don Corrado de Gerrera (1803), probably the first example of Russian Gothic fiction."

Text by Wikipedia.





К. Ф. Рылеев / Kondraty Ryleyev

Kondraty Fyodorovich Ryleyev, also spelled Kondraty Feodorovich Ryleev (1795-1826) - (Russian: Кондра́тий Фёдорович Рыле́ев) was a Russian poet, publisher, and a leader of the Decembrist Revolt, which attempted to overthrow the Russian monarchy in 1825.

He participated in the foreign campaigns of 1814 and 1815, seeing action in Poland, Germany and France, during the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1823, Ryleyev was recruited by Ivan Pushchin to the revolutionary Northern Society, an organization of reform-minded individuals, mainly veterans of the Napoleonic Wars, dedicated to abolishing serfdom, and replacing the Tsar's government with either a democratic republic or a constitutional monarchy.

Ryleyev believed that the revolt was likely to fail and the participants would be executed. Still, he argued that their sacrifice would not be in vain, as the uprising might "awaken Russia." As Ryleyev explained prior to the uprising:

An upheaval is essential. The tactics of revolution may be summed up in two words--to dare. If we come to grief our failure will serve as a lesson to those who come after us.

On the morning of December 26 (December 14 O.S.), 1825, a group of officers commanding some 3,000 men assembled in Saint Petersburg's Senate Square. They refused to swear allegiance to the new tsar, Nicholas I, instead proclaiming their loyalty to his brother, Grand Duke Constantine, and to the Decembrists' constitution, crying "Constantine and Constitution." They expected to be joined by the rest of the troops stationed in Saint Petersburg, but this did not occur. The revolt was further hampered when its nominal leader, Prince Sergei Petrovich Trubetskoy, suffered a last minute change of heart. Instead of joining the revolt, Trubetskoy chose to hide in the Austrian Embassy during the confrontation. His second in command, Colonel Bulatov, was also nowhere to be found. After a hurried consultation the rebels appointed Prince Evgeny Obolensky as their leader.

For several long hours there was a standoff between the 3,000 rebels and the 9,000 troops loyal to Nicholas I stationed outside the Senate building, with some desultory shooting from the rebel side. Eventually, the new Tsar appeared in person, at the square. He sent Count Mikhail Miloradovich, a hero of the Napoleonic Wars, who enjoyed great popularity with both officers and ordinary soldiers, to parley with the rebels. While delivering a speech encouraging the rebels to surrender, Miloradovich was shot dead by one of the rebels, Peter Kakhovsky. At the same time, a rebelling grenadier squad led by Lieutenant Nikolay Panov, entered the Winter Palace, but failed to seize it and retreated.

After spending most of the day in fruitless attempts to parley with the rebel force, the Tsar ordered a cavalry charge. However, the horses slipped on the icy cobbles and the officers retired in disorder. Eventually, as evening neared, the Tsar ordered three artillery regiments to open fire, with devastating effect. To avoid the slaughter the rebels broke and ran. Some attempted to regroup on the frozen surface of the Neva River, to the north of Senate Square. However, here, also, they were targeted by the artillery and suffered many casualties. The cannon fire broke the ice, sweeping away countless dead and dying soldiers into the Neva River. By dusk, that same afternoon, the revolt had been crushed.

On the night of December 27 (December 15 O.S.), 1825, Ryleyev was arrested for his role in the uprising, and charged with treason and attempted regicide. Along with four other Decembrists, judged to be the leaders of the rebellion, Ryleyev was sentenced to be drawn and quartered. The method of execution was changed to hanging after the Tsar refused to confirm the verdict, returning it for further deliberation."

Text by Wikipedia.





И. И. Козлов / Ivan Kozlov

"Ivan Ivanovich Kozlov 1779-1840) - (Russian: Иван Иванович Козлов) was a Russian Romantic poet and translator.

Kozlov was born in Moscow, of noble ancestry, in 1779. He began writing poetry only after 1820, when he became blind. He reached the success equal to that of Alexander Pushkin with The Monk (1825), a verse tale in which the darkness of a Byronic hero is sentimentalized and redeemed by ultimate repentance. The Monk produced as large a family of imitations as either of Pushkin's Romantic poems. Kozlov's two other narrative poems, Princess Natalie Dolgorukov (1828), a sentimental variation on the theme of the misfortunes of Peter II's bride, and The Mad Girl (1830), met with a somewhat diminished success. Today the only poem of his still universally remembered is an exceptionally faithful translation of Thomas Moore's Evening Bells, entitled Вечерний звон, a popular Russian song. He also translated The Burial of Sir John Moore after Corunna by Charles Wolfe (Не бил барабан перед смутным полком), and this text also became very popular in Russia."

Text by Wikipedia.


 
Old April 30th, 2016 #43
Alex Him
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Orest Kiprensky (VI)



Портрет князя H. П. Трубецкого (1826) / Portrait of Prince Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy (1826)

"Prince Nikita Petrovich Troubetzkoy (1804-1855) - half-brother of the Decembrists C. Trubetskoy and P. Trubetskoy, known for classic portrait Orestes Kiprensky (1826).

During his life he held a number of positions is not the most important: the retired lieutenant, an official of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the gentleman of the bedchamber, the actual state councilor, master of ceremonies.

The son of a valid State Councillor August 18, 1804 Peter Sergeyevich Trubetskoy (senior branch of the Princes Trubetskoy) and his second wife Maria Petrovna, nee Kromin. The name was in honor of his great-grandfather, Prince Nikita Yurevich.

April 2, 1823 Troubetzkoy came from, the pages of cameras in the cavalry regiment cornet. At age 22, he posed for a portrait by Orest Kiprensky in dress uniform Cavalry Regiment."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Петра Алексеевича Оленина (1813) / Portrait of Pyotr Olenin (1813)

"Peter A. Olenin (1794-1868) - Russian officer, a member of Patriotic War of 1812, Major General (1833), the amateur artist, honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Arts.

Peter A. Olenin was born in the family of Alexei Nikolaevich Olenin and Elizabeth Markovna, nee Poltoratskaya.

From birth, as well as senior Nicholas (1793-1812), the father was recorded in the Life Guards Semenov regiment , but the coronation of Emperor Paul brothers were excluded from the list as "do not appear on a call there."

Since 1807 Olenin on active duty: cadet in the retinue of His Imperial Majesty's Quartermaster part. April 25, 1809 transferred to the Life Guards Semenov regiment with the rank of ensign, sword belt. Ensign (03/09/1812). Peter A. was promoted to the first officer's rank on the day of performances in hiking the Life Guards and the Semenov regiment from St. Petersburg to Vilna (03/09/1812), but the order in the regiment took only 20 April. After 29 and 31 May parade and maneuvers regiment was to go back, but on June 13 the Emperor Alexander declared war on France and the regiment went to Swieciany where going to the infantry.

In the regiment brothers took part in the Battle of Borodino. M. I. Muravyov-Apostol recalled that Peter as the adjutant of the 2nd battalion was riding and was wounded flown near his head nucleus. After the fall of the horse, "he was considered killed." Prince Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy, visited the injured, told colleagues that the younger Olenin only wounded.

Wounded Peter "unconscious" was delivered in Moscow by Colonel Dame, and his brother Nikolas buried servants.

Two days Olenin did not come to himself, but gradually began to recover.
In 1813, during his illness O. Kiprensky painted a portrait of Peter.

A month later, after a concussion Peter Olenin returned to active duty. In 1813 with the rank of Lieutenant Olenin was adjutant of Count P. Stroganov and participated in foreign campaigns of the Russian army. In 1814 Olenin was appointed adjutant to M. Vorontsov and as part of the occupation corps took part in the battle of Paris.

In 1819, with the rank of Captain Olenin appointed adjutant P. P. Konovnitsyn. After the unrest in the Semenov regiment, and the order of his cashiering Peter A. transferred to 24 January 1821 in the Life Guards Jaeger Regiment. March 26, 1823 dismissed "due to illness" in the rank of captain.

Again he returned to the service of 9 January 1824 with the rank of lieutenant colonel in the Corps of Engineers of Railways adjutant to the chief superintendent communication routes Duke Alexander of Württemberg. In 1830 he was appointed commander of a brigade of military workers Battalion of Communications. In January 1833 Olenin retired from uniform and the rank of major general."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет А. Н. Оленина (1813) / Portrait of Alexei Nikolaevich Olenin (1813)

He was a father of Pyotr Olenin.

"Alexey Nikolayevich Olenin (1763-1843) - (Aleksey Nikolaevich Olenin, Russian: Алексей Николаевич Оленин) was a Russian archaeologist, most notable for being a director of the Imperial Public Library between 1811 and 1843 and the sixth president of the Imperial Academy of Arts between 1817 and 1843.

Olenin was born into a noble family in Moscow. He received his initial education at home. Then in 1774, as was customary at the time among Russian aristocracy, he was enrolled in the Corps of Pages. In 1780 he was sent to study history and art history in Dresden. In 1785 Olenin returned to Russia to start a military career. In parallel he was writing a dictionary of military quotations and in 1786 he was elected to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, even though the dictionary had not yet been published. In December 1786 Olenin quit military service, but in 1789 he rejoined the army. He was sent to Pskov and subsequently, in 1789—1790, participated in the Russo-Swedish war. In 1795 he was promoted to the rank of colonel and retired from military service for good.

After 1795 Olenin was employed on a variety of civil positions, including director of the Saint Petersburg Mint (1799). In 1811 he was appointed director of the Imperial Public Library.

From 1794 he took a keen interest in art, in particular, produced a number of graphic works, and formed a large collection of antiquities, which he later (in 1829) donated to the Academy of Arts. He went on to illustrate a number of books, including the selected works of Gavrila Derzhavin and a book of fables by Ivan Khemnitser. In 1804 he was elected a member of the Academy of Arts.[2] In 1806 Olenin published his first scholarly paper, A letter to Prince Musin-Pushkin on the stone of Tmutarakan found at the island of Taman in 1792, in which he deciphered the inscription on the stone. Because of this paper, Olenin is regarded as a founder of Russian palaeography. He is also notable for being the host of one of the most fashionable salons in Saint Petersburg, which attracted many authors, artists, musicians, and actors.

Alexander Pushkin, considered to be the most famous Russian poet, was romantically involved with Anna Olenina, Alexey Olenin's youngest daughter. He wrote a number of poems to her, and even proposed to her in 1828, but was rejected outright."

Text by Wikipedia.




Портрет Анны Алексеевны Олениной (1828) / Portrait of Anna Olenina (1828)

She was a daughter of Alexey Olenin, and a sister of Pyotr Olenin.

"Anna A. Andro, nee Olenina (1808-1888) - the daughter of the president of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts A. Olenin. Beloved Pushkin in the 1828-29 biennium. The target of his poems "Her eyes", "Do not sing the beauty in front of me", many verses "Onegin". Musician and singer. Author unreleased until now the diaries and memoirs of Pushkin. Wife of President of Warsaw F. A. Andro. Patron of young talents in Poland.

On account of her father, who knew ten languages, she received an excellent education. She wrote about herself:

«I very much obliged, from its true and deep knowledge of me something perepalo. In his talk, the choice for me books and in the range of unforgettable our great contemporaries Karamzin, Bludov, Krylov, Gnedich, Pushkin, Bryullov, Batiushkov, Glinka, Mickiewicz, Utkin, Shchedrin and other lay the whole I am everything that was, at the time desired.»

Additionally, Annette sang beautifully, and in his younger years, wrote the music for the Duma Ryleeva "Death Ermak". At 17, she was appointed maid of honor of the imperial court.

Familiarity with Pushkin was at the end of the 1810s, when the poet began to visit the house of venison, which was the center of the literary and artistic life of St. Petersburg. But the closer they occurred later, when in May 1827 he returned from a seven-year exile. Their first meeting took place at a ball at the Countess Tizengauzen-Khitrovo. Later, Pushkin often visited the venison, but in their manor, Priyutino was his own man.

Anna A. married after Pushkin's death in 1840 at the age of 32 years. Her husband was Colonel of the Life Guards Hussar Regiment Fedor Aleksandrovich Andro (1804-1885). In 1844 the family moved to Warsaw, where she has lived for about 40 years."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Елизаветы Марковны Олениной (1813) / Portrait of Elizabeth Olenina (1813)

Elizabeth Olenina - (1768-1838).
She was a wife of Alexey Olenin
and a mother of Pyotr Olenin and Anna Olenina.





Портрет А. О. Смирновой-Россет (1830) / Portrait of A. O. Smirnova (1830)

"Alexandra Osipovna Smirnova (1809-1882) - (Александра Осиповна Смирнова, née Rossette, known also as Smirnova-Rossette, Смирнова-Россет) was a Russian Imperial court lady-in-waiting who served first widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna, then, after her death in 1828, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna. Alexandra Rossette (who in 1832 married Russian diplomat Nikolai Smirnov), was an elitist Saint Petersburg salon hostess and a friend of Alexander Pushkin, Vasily Zhukovsky, Pyotr Vyazemsky, Nikolai Gogol and Mikhail Lermontov. She is best remembered for her memoirs, unusually frank, occasionally caustic, and, as it was argued decades later, not necessarily accurate."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет З. А. Волконской (1829) / Portrait of Zinaida Volkonskaya (1829)

Another portrait - http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2020540&postcount=29





Портрет М. А. Кикиной (1816) / Portrait of M. A. Kikina (1816)

Another portrait - http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2020502&postcount=28





Портрет неизвестной (1820) / Portrait of an unknown woman (1820)





Темноволосая красавица в горностаевой мантии / Dark-haired beautiful woman in an ermine mantle


 
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Читатели газет в Неаполе (1831) / Readers of newspapers in Naples (1831)





Цыганка с веткой мирта (1819) / A gypsy with a branch of myrtle (1819)





Слепой музыкант (1809) / Blind musician (1809)





Молодой итальянец (1831-1836) / Young Italian (1831-1836)





Итальянские селянки / Italian Peasant Girls





Ворожея со свечой / Fortune-teller with a candle





Наводнение в Петербурге 7 ноября 1824 года (1824) / Flood in St. Petersburg (1824)





Калмычка Баяуста (1812-1813) / Portrait of a Kalmyk woman Bayausta (1813)





Распятие. Этюд двух натурщиков. (1800-ые) / Crucifixion. Etude of two sitters (1800s)





Пейзаж с бурлаками (1810-ые) / Landscape with barge haulers (1810s)


 
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Портрет госпожи Валло, воспитательницы в семье коллекционера и любителя искусств А. Р. Томилова (1813) / Portrait of Mrs. Vallo [educator in the family of the collector and art lover A. R. Tomilova] (1813)





Портрет А. Р. Томилова в форме ополченца (1813) / Portrait of A. Tomilov in the form of volunteer (1813)

Tomilov Alexei Romanovich - (1775 - 1849), landowner, philanthropist and one of the biggest collectors of works of art, a member of the Society for Encouragement of Russian artists. In Tomilov Petersburg society was known for a special reverence painting, most of the received from their estates income he directed for the purchase of works of Russian and West European art. His collection was almost complete collection is in Russia Rembrandt etchings - of posthumous inventory it follows that the collection was Tomilova 334 works by the Dutch artist, to date, the majority of which is in the collections of the State Hermitage.





Портрет Алексея Романовича Томилова / Portrait of A. Tomilov





Портрет А. Р. Томилова (1828) / Portrait of A. Tomilov (1828)





Портрет В. А. Томиловой (1813) / Portrait of Varvara Andreyevna Tomilova (1813)

Варвара Андреевна Томилова - (1784-1823).
She was a wife of Alexei Tomilov.





Портрет Голициной (1815) / Portrait of Golitsyna (1815)





Портрет князя А. М. Голицина (1819) / Portrait of the Prince Alexander Mikhailovich Golitsyn (1819)

"Prince Alexander Golitsyn (1772-1821) - Privy Councillor, Chamberlain, art collector of rarities from the genus Golitsyn (Mikhailovich branch). The elder brother of the "last of the Moscow nobles" Sergey Golitsyn.

Grandson of General-Admiral M. Golitsyn and Baron A. G. Stroganov. Son of lieutenant-general and chamberlain M. Golitsyn and Baroness Anna Alexandrovna Stroganov (1739-1816).

During the reign of Catherine II was a page chambers. Empress showed endless devotion, and she favored him. Then he was appointed gentleman of the bedchamber to the Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich. Due to the mind and the ability to be a pleasant companion deserved his favor and trust.

In 1799 Paul I was removed from the court.

Subsequently, he was again at the court. He was chamberlain at the court of Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna. In 1802, he accompanied by the Grand Duchess Elizabeth A. to Sweden for a meeting with her sister Frederica. Prince Golitsyn differed cheerful character and satirical wit, was handsome, of short stature earned him the nickname «le petit Golitzine» (Little Golitsyn), but for the long face «le prince cheval» (prince horse). Contemporaries found it very similar to the Swedish King Gustav IV Adolf.

On November 12, 1802 was married to Princess Natalia Feodorovna Shakhovskoy (1779-1807), the granddaughter of General Prosecutor J. P. Shakhovsky, favorite maid of honor and best friend of the Empress Elizabeth Alekseevna.

In 1807, due to the illness of his wife moved with his family abroad, where he was to live most of his time. In 1819, Golitsyn moved to Italy. Buying a house monteynard, lived in Rome in Via Umilta, where the artist Orest Kiprensky painted his portrait, it was created two years before the death of the prince, the portrait is now in the Tretyakov Gallery."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет князя Ф. А. Голицина (1833) / Portrait of the Prince F. A. Golitsyn (1833)

He was a son of Alexander Golitsyn.

"Prince Fedor Aleksandrovich Golitsyn (1805-1848), - gentleman of the bedchamber, a Catholic writer; brother bibliophile M. Golitsyn.

The younger son of the Russian ambassador in Rome, Duke Alexander Mikhailovich Golitsyn (1772-1821) and the maid of honor of the Empress favorite Natalya Fyodorovna Shakhovskoy (1779-1807). Initial education received in Paris, where he lived with his father and brother. In 1821, after the death of his father, he together with his brother returned to Russia under the care of an uncle of Prince S. Golitsyn. In 1823 he entered the service of the gentleman of the bedchamber to the Collegium of Foreign Affairs.

In 1833 he was sent to Rome, was "super state" with the Russian mission to the rank of a collegiate assessor. In 1841 in Italy, he converted to Catholicism and became a member of the Jesuit Order. The Golitsyn Rome, lived in the house on Via Umilto, who received from his father. His guests were the Tsarevich Alexander, during his trip to Europe, V.A. Zhukovsky, Gogol, and A. Turgenev , who called Golitsyn "kind and scattered aristocrat".

In 1841, Golitsyn was summoned to Russia, but for reasons of health took a leave for treatment in Switzerland. In 1842, for failure to return from leave he was dismissed from the service. From Switzerland Golitsyn moved to Paris, where he began religious education of soldiers of the garrison of the city. In 1844 active work Golitsyn was banned by the French government. September 14, 1845 decision of the State Council in absentia deprived of all property rights and sentenced to hard labor "for failure to return to the country in spite of the repeated calls of the Government."

In 1847, he joined a volunteer in the papal army in Italy. By participating in the June, 1848, in a battle near the city of Treviso, Golitsyn became seriously ill and died. Engraver F. J. Jordan in his memoirs:

«Being a weak mind, but very rich, the prince donated most of his wealth to free Italy from the yoke of the Austrians... The Italians were pleased to see in the ranks of the army of the Russian prince. This news everywhere been disclosed. Prince Golitsyn promised not only that serve, but to carry on a par with other all the burden of military service. He even went on foot with an army, but after a few miles, fell ill, and he had to get into his carriage to ailing Bologna, after which he died shortly thereafter.»

He was buried in Bologna at the cemetery Carthusian Monastery as a national hero in Italy. In 1860 there was buried Prince M. Golitsyn , monuments both brothers are near; on the monument of Prince Fedor written Latin saying: "He liked to be anonymous."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет князя Алексея Ивановича Горчакова / Portrait of Prince Aleksey Ivanovich Gorchakov

"Prince Aleksey Ivanovich Gorchakov (1769–1817) was a Russian general and statesman from the Gorchakov family.

Aleksey Gorchakov was a son of Prince Ivan Gorchakov and a sister of the noted Russian generalissimo Alexander Suvorov. Born in Moscow, he enlisted in the Lifa Guard Preobrazhensk Regiment in 1774, and began his service several years later in 1781. In 1786 he entered the regular army as a captain and served with distinction (as an adjudant) under his uncle Suvorov in the Turkish War of 1787-1792. Gorchakov distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1789 at Akerman, at Ochakov, the latter for which he received the Order of St. George (4th class) as well as being promoted to lieutenant colonel and becoming an adjudant to Prince Potemkin, at Kaumany, at Bender and in the campaign of 1790. In 1790 he was promoted to colonel of Azov regiment. In 1792 he fought in the Poland (Polish-Russian War of 1792) and received the Order of St. Vladimir (4th class).

Gorchakov took part as a general officer in the Italian and Swiss operations of 1799 together with general Rimsky-Korsakov. He returned to Russia afterwards, and became chef of the Neva Musketeer Regiment on 7 February 1800, while serving as the governor of Vryborg as well as the chef of the Vryborg Garrison regiment between March and August in 1800. He then served in the next war against Napoleon in Poland in 1806–1807 (Battle of Heilsberg). He succeeded Barclay de Tolly as the Minister of War in August 1812, and was promoted to general of the infantry on 11 September 1814."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет А. С. Шишкова (1825) / Portrait of Alexander Shishkov (1825)

"Alexander Semyonovich Shishkov (1754-1841) - (Russian: Алекса́ндр Семёнович Шишко́в) was a Russian statesman, writer, and admiral.

Shishkov was notorious for his proto-Slavophile sentiments. His aversion to loans from other languages was much ridiculed in the liberal press. He was the President of the Russian Academy and People's Education Minister. Shishkov published The Trilingual Naval Dictionary, Russia's first dictionary of Russian and foreign naval terms."

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Портрет И. В. Гёте / Portrait of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

"Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749-1832) - was a German writer and statesman. His body of work includes epic and lyric poetry written in a variety of metres and styles; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour; and four novels. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him exist. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August in 1782 after first taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther. He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe served as a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, and implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena. He also contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace, which in 1998 were together designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

After returning from a tour of Italy in 1788, his first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published. In 1791 he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, and in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist, historian, and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period Goethe published his second novel, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, the verse epic Hermann and Dorothea, and, in 1808, the first part of his most celebrated drama, Faust. His conversations and various common undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, and August and Friedrich Schlegel have, in later years, been collectively termed Weimar Classicism."

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Портрет датского скульптора Бертеля Торвальдсена (1831) / Portrait of the Sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1831)

"(Karl Albert) Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770–1844) was a Danish sculptor of international fame, who spent most of his life (1789–1838) in Italy. Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, and was accepted to the Royal Danish Academy of Art when he was eleven years old. Working part-time with his father, who was a wood carver, Thorvaldsen won many honors and medals at the academy. He was awarded a stipend to travel to Rome and continue his education.

In Rome, Thorvaldsen quickly made a name for himself as a sculptor. Maintaining a large workshop in the city, he worked in a heroic neo-classicist style. His patrons resided all over Europe.

Upon his return to Denmark in 1838, Thorvaldsen was received as a national hero. The Thorvaldsen Museum was erected to house his works next to Christiansborg Palace. Thorvaldsen is buried within the courtyard of the museum. In his time, he was seen as the successor of master sculptor Antonio Canova. His strict adherence to classical norms has tended to estrange modern audiences. Among his more famous works are the statues of Nicolaus Copernicus and Józef Poniatowski in Warsaw; the statue of Maximilian I in Munich; and the tomb monument of Pope Pius VII, the only work by a non-Italian in St. Peter's Basilica."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет итальянского художника пейзажиста Грегорио Фиданца (1820) / Portrait of the Italian landscape painter Gregorio Fidanza (1820)

Gregorio Fidanza (1754 - 1823).





Портрет доктора Мазарони (1829) / Portrait of Dr. Mazaroni (1829)





Портрет Адама Мицкевича (1824) / Portrait of Adam Mickiewicz (1824)

"Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (1798–1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is counted one of Poland's "Three Bards" ("Trzej Wieszcze") and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet. He is also considered one of the greatest Slavic and European poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard". A leading Romantic dramatist, he has been compared in Poland and Europe to Byron and Goethe.

He is known chiefly for the poetic drama Dziady (Forefathers' Eve) and the national epic poem Pan Tadeusz. His other influential works include Konrad Wallenrod and Grażyna. All these served as inspiration for uprisings against the three imperial powers that had partitioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth out of existence.

Mickiewicz was born in the Russian-partitioned territories of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which had been part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and was active in the struggle to win independence for his home region. After, as a consequence, spending five years exiled to central Russia, in 1829 he succeeded in leaving the Russian Empire and, like many of his compatriots, lived out the rest of his life abroad. He settled first in Rome, then in Paris, where for a little over three years he lectured on Slavic literature at the Collège de France. He died, probably of cholera, at Istanbul in the Ottoman Empire, where he had gone to help organize Polish and Jewish forces to fight Russia in the Crimean War."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет аббата Сартори (1818) / Portrait of the Abbot Sartori (1818)





Портрет аббата Скарпеллини (1819-1821) / Portrait of the Abbot Skarpellini (1819-1821)





Портрет Франсуа-Луи Дюваля (1816) / Portrait of Francois-Louis Duval (1816)





Портрет Ж. Ф. Дюваля (1816) / Portrait of Jean-Francois Duval (1816)





Портрет Cher de Angelis (1822) / Portrait of Cher de Angelis (1822)


 
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Портрет Сергея Семёновича Уварова (1813) / Portrait of Sergei Uvarov (1813)

"Count Sergey Semionovich Uvarov (1786-1855) - (Russian: Серге́й Семёнович Ува́ров) was a Russian classical scholar best remembered as an influential imperial statesman under Nicholas I of Russia.

Uvarov, connected through marriage with the powerful Razumovsky family, published a number of works on Ancient Greek literature and archaeology, which brought him European renown. A confirmed conservative, he was on friendly terms with Alexander Humboldt, Madame de Stael, Goethe, Prince de Ligne, Nikolay Karamzin, and Vasily Zhukovsky. From 1811 to 1822, he curated the Saint Petersburg educational district.

In 1832, Uvarov was appointed Deputy Minister of National Education, succeeding his father-in-law Count Razumovsky. He was elected an Honorable Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1811 and was the president of that venerable institution from 1818 until his death. In the wake of the Decembrist revolt of 1825, the tsar moved to protect the status quo by centralizing the educational system. He wanted to neutralize the threat of foreign ideas and what he ridiculed as "pseudo-knowledge." However, Uvarov, quietly promoted academic freedom and autonomy, raised academic standards, improved facilities, and opened higher education to the middle classes. By 1848 the tsar, fearing the political upheavals in the West might uprisings in Europe, ended Uvarov's innovations.

Uvarov was responsible for coming up with the formula "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality", the basis of his activities regarding public education. According to Uvarov’s theory, the Russian folk (narod) is very religious and devoted to the Emperor, so the Orthodox religion and Autocracy are unconditional bases of the existence of Russia. Nationality (Narodnost) is deemed to be the necessity to follow independent national traditions and to fight foreign influence. The theory stated that it was necessary to reject western ideas – freedom of thinking, freedom of personality, individualism, rationalism which were considered by Orthodox religion as dangerous and rebel thinking. The chief of Russian political police (the III Department of His Majesty Personal Chancellery) Alexander von Benckendorff wrote that “the past of Russia was wonderful, the present is splendid and the future is above all dreams”. These three concepts were considered as "pillar-walls" of the Russian Empire. He worked to limit access to education by people of non-noble origin and strengthening governmental control over the universities and gymnasiums, once famously remarking, "No university Pugachevs." It means that only a small part of Russian population (only noble ones, many of them of foreign descent) had the possibility to get the education, it was almost impossible for Russian non-nobles to get access to education. Within this meaning, the Narodnost (Nationality) meant that Russian folk had to stay away from education (Western influence) in order to preserve the folks' pure Russian national character.

The universities were small and closely monitored, especially the potentially dangerous philosophy departments. Their main mission was to train a loyal, athletic, masculinized senior bureaucracy that avoided the effeminacy of office work.

Despite these reactionary measures, Uvarov was also responsible for laying the foundations of high-quality education in Russia and reinstating the practice of sending Russian scientists abroad. Unfortunately all his deeds and acts were a dead contribution into Russian educational system, because almost 99% of Russian population (non-nobles, folk) were prohibited from getting education, no matter how talented they were.

Uvarovite, the rarest of garnets, is named after him. His son Aleksey Uvarov co-founded the Russian Archaeological Society and the State Historical Museum in Moscow."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Сергея Семёновича Уварова (1815-1816) / Portrait of Sergei Uvarov (1815-1816)





Портрет графа Ф. В. Ростопчина (1809) / Portrait of Feodor Rostopchin (1809)

"Count Fyodor Vasilyevich Rostopchin (1763-1826) (Russian: Фёдор Васи́льевич Ростопчи́н) was a Russian statesman, who served as governor of Moscow during the French invasion of Russia.

Feodor Rostopchin had great influence over the Tsar Paul I, who in 1796 made him adjutant general, grand-marshal of the court, and then Foreign Minister. In 1799 he was given the title of count. His opposition to the French alliance in 1801 resulted in his falling out of favor, but he was restored to favor in 1810 as conditions between France and Russia began to deteriorate. Shortly thereafter he was appointed military governor of Moscow.

During the French invasion of Russia he was responsible for the defence of the city against Napoleon, and he took every means available to rouse the population of the town and district to arm and join the army to defend the city against the invaders. After the Battle of Borodino it was clear that the French could not be denied the city. Rostopchin had the city evacuated, including all the city administrators and officials, leaving behind only a few French tutors, foreign shop keepers and those that were the lowest class of society. In addition, the prisons were opened and the prisoners set free by his order. No one met the Emperor Napoleon when he arrived at the city gates on 14 September. On the first night of French occupation a fire broke out in the bazaar and a number of small fires erupted in other quarters, but these were thought to be due to accident. The following day as Napoleon rode through the streets to the Kremlin he found the streets deserted. That night the city began to burn in earnest. Rostopchin had left a small detachment of police, whom he charged with burning the city to the ground. Houses were prepared with flammable materials. The city's fire-engines were disassembled. Fuses were left throughout the city to ignite the fires.

He married Ekaterina Petrovna Protassova (1775–1869)."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Ф. В. Ростопчина (1822) / Portrait of Feodor Rostopchin (1822)

From "War and Peace", by Leo Tolstoy:

"On the evening of the first of September, after his interview with Kutuzov, Count Rostopchin had returned to Moscow mortified and offended because he had not been invited to attend the council of war, and because Kutuzov had paid no attention to his offer to take part in the defense of the city; amazed also at the novel outlook revealed to him at the camp, which treated the tranquillity of the capital and its patriotic fervor as not merely secondary but quite irrelevant and unimportant matters. Distressed, offended, and surprised by all this, Rostopchin had returned to Moscow. After supper he lay down on a sofa without undressing, and was awakened soon after midnight by a courier bringing him a letter from Kutuzov. This letter requested the count to send police officers to guide the troops through the town, as the army was retreating to the Ryazan road beyond Moscow. This was not news to Rostopchin. He had known that Moscow would be abandoned not merely since his interview the previous day with Kutuzov on the Poklonny Hill but ever since the battle of Borodino, for all the generals who came to Moscow after that battle had said unanimously that it was impossible to fight another battle, and since then the government property had been removed every night, and half the inhabitants had left the city with Rostopchin’s own permission. Yet all the same this information astonished and irritated the count, coming as it did in the form of a simple note with an order from Kutuzov, and received at night, breaking in on his beauty sleep.
................
Rostopchin, though he had patriotic sentiments, was a sanguine and impulsive man who had always moved in the highest administrative circles and had no understanding at all of the people he supposed himself to be guiding. Ever since the enemy’s entry into Smolensk he had in imagination been playing the role of director of the popular feeling of “the heart of Russia.” Not only did it seem to him (as to all administrators) that he controlled the external actions of Moscow’s inhabitants, but he also thought he controlled their mental attitude by means of his broadsheets and posters, written in a coarse tone which the people despise in their own class and do not understand from those in authority. Rostopchin was so pleased with the fine role of leader of popular feeling, and had grown so used to it, that the necessity of relinquishing that role and abandoning Moscow without any heroic display took him unawares and he suddenly felt the ground slip away from under his feet, so that he positively did not know what to do. Though he knew it was coming, he did not till the last moment wholeheartedly believe that Moscow would be abandoned, and did not prepare for it. The inhabitants left against his wishes. If the government offices were removed, this was only done on the demand of officials to whom the count yielded reluctantly. He was absorbed in the role he had created for himself. As is often the case with those gifted with an ardent imagination, though he had long known that Moscow would be abandoned he knew it only with his intellect, he did not believe it in his heart and did not adapt himself mentally to this new position of affairs.
All his painstaking and energetic activity (in how far it was useful and had any effect on the people is another question) had been simply directed toward arousing in the masses his own feeling of patriotic hatred of the French.
But when events assumed their true historical character, when expressing hatred for the French in words proved insufficient, when it was not even possible to express that hatred by fighting a battle, when self-confidence was of no avail in relation to the one question before Moscow, when the whole population streamed out of Moscow as one man, abandoning their belongings and proving by that negative action all the depth of their national feeling, then the role chosen by Rostopchin suddenly appeared senseless. He unexpectedly felt himself ridiculous, weak, and alone, with no ground to stand on.
When, awakened from his sleep, he received that cold, peremptory note from Kutuzov, he felt the more irritated the more he felt himself to blame. All that he had been specially put in charge of, the state property which he should have removed, was still in Moscow and it was no longer possible to take the whole of it away.
“Who is to blame for it? Who has let things come to such a pass?” he ruminated. “Not I, of course. I had everything ready. I had Moscow firmly in hand. And this is what they have let it come to! Villains! Traitors!” he thought, without clearly defining who the villains and traitors were, but feeling it necessary to hate those traitors whoever they might be who were to blame for the false and ridiculous position in which he found himself.
All that night Count Rostopchin issued orders, for which people came to him from all parts of Moscow. Those about him had never seen the count so morose and irritable.
................
The count ordered his carriage that he might drive to Sokolniki, and sat in his study with folded hands, morose, sallow, and taciturn.
In quiet and untroubled times it seems to every administrator that it is only by his efforts that the whole population under his rule is kept going, and in this consciousness of being indispensable every administrator finds the chief reward of his labor and efforts. While the sea of history remains calm the ruler-administrator in his frail bark, holding on with a boat hook to the ship of the people and himself moving, naturally imagines that his efforts move the ship he is holding on to. But as soon as a storm arises and the sea begins to heave and the ship to move, such a delusion is no longer possible. The ship moves independently with its own enormous motion, the boat hook no longer reaches the moving vessel, and suddenly the administrator, instead of appearing a ruler and a source of power, becomes an insignificant, useless, feeble man.
Rostopchin felt this, and it was this which exasperated him.
The superintendent of police, whom the crowd had stopped, went in to see him at the same time as an adjutant who informed the count that the horses were harnessed. They were both pale, and the superintendent of police, after reporting that he had executed the instructions he had received, informed the count that an immense crowd had collected in the courtyard and wished to see him.
Without saying a word Rostopchin rose and walked hastily to his light, luxurious drawing room, went to the balcony door, took hold of the handle, let it go again, and went to the window from which he had a better view of the whole crowd. The tall lad was standing in front, flourishing his arm and saying something with a stern look. The blood stained smith stood beside him with a gloomy face. A drone of voices was audible through the closed window.
“Is my carriage ready?” asked Rostopchin, stepping back from the window.
“It is, your excellency,” replied the adjutant.
Rostopchin went again to the balcony door.
“But what do they want?” he asked the superintendent of police.
“Your excellency, they say they have got ready, according to your orders, to go against the French, and they shouted something about treachery. But it is a turbulent crowd, your excellency — I hardly managed to get away from it. Your excellency, I venture to suggest . . . ”
“You may go. I don’t need you to tell me what to do!” exclaimed Rostopchin angrily.
He stood by the balcony door looking at the crowd.
“This is what they have done with Russia! This is what they have done with me!” thought he, full of an irrepressible fury that welled up within him against the someone to whom what was happening might be attributed. As often happens with passionate people, he was mastered by anger but was still seeking an object on which to vent it. “Here is that mob, the dregs of the people,” he thought as he gazed at the crowd: “this rabble they have roused by their folly! They want a victim,” he thought as he looked at the tall lad flourishing his arm. And this thought occurred to him just because he himself desired a victim, something on which to vent his rage.
“Is the carriage ready?” he asked again.
“Yes, your excellency. What are your orders about Vereshchagin? He is waiting at the porch,” said the adjutant.
“Ah!” exclaimed Rostopchin, as if struck by an unexpected recollection.
And rapidly opening the door he went resolutely out onto the balcony. The talking instantly ceased, hats and caps were doffed, and all eyes were raised to the count.
“Good morning, lads!” said the count briskly and loudly. “Thank you for coming. I’ll come out to you in a moment, but we must first settle with the villain. We must punish the villain who has caused the ruin of Moscow. Wait for me!”
And the count stepped as briskly back into the room and slammed the door behind him.
A murmur of approbation and satisfaction ran through the crowd. “He’ll settle with all the villains, you’ll see! And you said the French . . . He’ll show you what law is!” the mob were saying as if reproving one another for their lack of confidence.
A few minutes later an officer came hurriedly out of the front door, gave an order, and the dragoons formed up in line. The crowd moved eagerly from the balcony toward the porch. Rostopchin, coming out there with quick angry steps, looked hastily around as if seeking someone.
“Where is he?” he inquired. And as he spoke he saw a young man coming round the corner of the house between two dragoons. He had a long thin neck, and his head, that had been half shaved, was again covered by short hair. This young man was dressed in a threadbare blue cloth coat lined with fox fur, that had once been smart, and dirty hempen convict trousers, over which were pulled his thin, dirty, trodden-down boots. On his thin, weak legs were heavy chains which hampered his irresolute movements.
“Ah!” said Rostopchin, hurriedly turning away his eyes from the young man in the fur-lined coat and pointing to the bottom step of the porch. “Put him there.”
The young man in his clattering chains stepped clumsily to the spot indicated, holding away with one finger the coat collar which chafed his neck, turned his long neck twice this way and that, sighed, and submissively folded before him his thin hands, unused to work.
For several seconds while the young man was taking his place on the step the silence continued. Only among the back rows of the people, who were all pressing toward the one spot, could sighs, groans, and the shuffling of feet be heard.
While waiting for the young man to take his place on the step Rostopchin stood frowning and rubbing his face with his hand.
“Lads!” said he, with a metallic ring in his voice. “This man, Vereshchagin, is the scoundrel by whose doing Moscow is perishing.”
The young man in the fur-lined coat, stooping a little, stood in a submissive attitude, his fingers clasped before him. His emaciated young face, disfigured by the half-shaven head, hung down hopelessly. At the count’s first words he raised it slowly and looked up at him as if wishing to say something or at least to meet his eye. But Rostopchin did not look at him. A vein in the young man’s long thin neck swelled like a cord and went blue behind the ear, and suddenly his face flushed.
All eyes were fixed on him. He looked at the crowd, and rendered more hopeful by the expression he read on the faces there, he smiled sadly and timidly, and lowering his head shifted his feet on the step.
“He has betrayed his Tsar and his country, he had gone over to Bonaparte. He alone of all the Russians has disgraced the Russian name, he has caused Moscow to perish,” said Rostopchin in a sharp, even voice, but suddenly he glanced down at Vereshchagin who continued to stand in the same submissive attitude. As if inflamed by the sight, he raised his arm and addressed the people, almost shouting:
“Deal with him as you think fit! I hand him over to you.”
The crowd remained silent and only pressed closer and closer to one another. To keep one another back, to breathe in that stifling atmosphere, to be unable to stir, and to await something unknown, uncomprehended, and terrible, was becoming unbearable. Those standing in front, who had seen and heard what had taken place before them, all stood with wide open eyes and mouths, straining with all their strength, and held back the crowd that was pushing behind them.
“Beat him! . . . Let the traitor perish and not disgrace the Russian name!” shouted Rostopchin. “Cut him down. I command it.”
Hearing not so much the words as the angry tone of Rostopchin’s voice, the crowd moaned and heaved forward, but again paused.
“Count!” exclaimed the timid yet theatrical voice of Vereshchagin in the midst of the momentary silence that ensued, “Count! One God is above us both. . . . ” He lifted his head and again the thick vein in his thin neck filled with blood and the color rapidly came and went in his face.
He did not finish what he wished to say.
“Cut him down! I command it . . . ” shouted Rostopchin, suddenly growing pale like Vereshchagin.
“Draw sabers!” cried the dragoon officer, drawing his own."





Портрет графини Екатерины Петровны Ростопчиной (1809) / Portrait of Countess Ekaterina Petrovna Rostopchina (1809)

She was a wife of Feodor Rostopchin.

"Countess Yekaterina Petrovna Rostopchina (1776-1859) - (Russian: Екатерина Петровна Ростопчина) was a Russian aristocrat and writer. She was married to Fyodor Rostopchin, who served as governor of Moscow during the French Invasion of Russia.

Yekaterina was the second of five daughters born to Senator Lieutenant General Pyotr S. Protasov (d. 1794) and his wife Alexandra Ivanovna (d. 1782). She had four sisters:

Alexandra Petrovna (1774–1842), married Prince Alexei Golitsyn
Varvara Petrovna, died unmarried
Vera Petrovna (1780–1814), married Hilarion Vasilyevich Vasilchikov
Anna Petrovna, married Count Bartholomew Vasilyevich Tolstoy

Yekaterina was tall, attractive, and possessed an expressive face, and black eyes that were full of life and fire. However, she was reserved and unsociable.

Yekaterina was granted the title maid of honour, in 1791. She married Count Fyodor Vasilievich Rostopchin, who appreciated her serious nature, in early 1794. The couple had four sons and four daughters and had a happy marriage until Yekaterina's conversion to Catholicism.

Being a free-thinker with little knowledge of the Russian Orthodox faith, Catherine, along with her sisters, converted to Roman Catholicism. This conversion destroyed the family's happiness.

In 1814, Rostopchin resigned as Mayor of Moscow, and the couple moved to Germany, and then to France. After their return to Moscow, in 1824, their 18-year-old daughter Yelizaveta, Rostopchin's favorite, died early in March of the following year. Yelizaveta had converted to Catholicism before her death; on his daughter's conversion, Rostopchin wrote, "Under the circumstances, suggests a direct effect of mother." The blow of his daughter's conversion broke the Count, and he died in 1826. Rostopchin left orders before his death that Yekaterina should be removed from supervising the education of their young son Andrei, and from the administration of his estate. Yekaterina was not present at her husband's funeral, and was a lonely woman after he died.

Children:

Sergei Fyodorovich (1796–1836) received his education at home and, in 1809, was appointed a page. He was appointed adjutant to Hussars Lieutenant Akhtynskiy, in April 1812, without an exam, and then to the Duke of Oldenburg. He later saw service with the Serbian monarch Đorđe Petrović, Prince Mikhail Bogdanovich, and Barclay de Tolly, eventually becoming staff captain of the Cavalry Regiment. Sergei was married to Princess Maria de Ignatievna Ruiz-Sol (1799–1838). The couple died childless.

Natalia (1797–1866), author of the notes of the Rostropovich family in 1812, in Yaroslavl. Natalia married Dmitri V. Naryshkin (1792–1831) in Paris, in July 1819, and lived primarily in Crimea because of its patronage of the artist Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky.

Mistress Segur (1799–1874), a French children's writer. She married Count Edmond de Segur (1798–1869) in Paris, in July 1819. She lived in France after her marriage, and her favorite seat was the manor Nuet in Normandy, which she bought with money from her father.

Paul Fyodorovich (1803–1806)

Maria Fyodorovich (born mid. 1805)

Yelizaveta Fyodorovich (1807–1825), described as her father's favorite, "a girl of rare beauty, intelligence and dignity". Elizabeth's early death, in March 1825, was a severe blow to the Rostopchin family; she had secretly converted to Catholicism before her death.[1]

Mikhail Fyodorovich (born mid. 1810)

Andrei Rostopchin (1813–1892), Master of the Horse of the Supreme Court. Andrew served as the Directorate General of Eastern Siberia, and retired in 1886 with the rank of privy councillor. His first wife was Yevdokiya Petrovna Sushkova (1811–1858), a writer, wed in 1833; later on he married Anna Vladimirovna Miretskaya, née Skorobokach (d. 1901)."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Е. П. Ростопчиной (1822) / Portrait of Ekaterina Petrovna Rostopchina (1822)





Портрет Софии Ростопчиной (1823) / Portrait of Sophie Rostopchin (1823)

She was a daughter of Ekaterina and Fyodor Rostopchin.

Sophie Rostopchine, Countess of Ségur, née Sofiya Feodorovna Rostopchina (1799-1874) - (Russian: Софья Фёдоровна Ростопчина), was a French writer of Russian birth. She is best known today for her novel Les Malheurs de Sophie (Sophie's misfortunes), intended for children.

It was in her father's salon that Sophie Rostopchine met Eugène Henri Raymond, Count of Ségur (1798–1869), whom she married on 13/14 July 1819. The marriage was largely an unhappy one: her husband was flighty, distant and poor (until being made a Peer of France in 1830), and his infrequent conjugal visits to their château des Nouettes (near L'Aigle, Orne) produced eight children, including the father of the historian Pierre de Ségur (Eugène de Ségur is said to have called his wife "la mère Gigogne", or "Mother Gigogne" in reference to a theatre character of 1602, an enormous woman out of whose skirts a crowd of children appeared).

The Comtesse de Ségur wrote her first novel at the age of 58."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет князя П. П. Щербатова (1808) / Portrait of the Prince P. Scherbatov (1808)

"Prince Paul Petrovich Shcherbatov (1762-1831) - privy councilor, senator of the genus Shcherbatov. The nephew of the historian M. Shcherbatov.

The younger son of Prince Guard Captain Peter Mikhailovich Shcherbatov and Natalia Pavlovna Balk-Polevoy. His grandfather by father side, Major-General Prince M. Yu. Shcherbatov had great influence at court, and held the position of governor of the Arkhangelsk region; grandfather by mother side - General P. F. Balk-Polevoy was a senator and chamberlain. Sisters of mother - Matryona Pavlovna was married to C. V. Saltykov, a known favorite of Catherine II, and Maria Pavlovna, who married with S. K. Naryshkin. P.Chaadayev accounted Pavel Petrovich great-nephew.

Early lost his father, Paul Shcherbatov in 1767 was defined in the Land Cadet Corps, where in 1782 was released a lieutenant in the Chernigov Infantry Regiment. Made in the same year in the capital, and then in 1783 transferred to a second lieutenant in the Life Guards Preobrazhensky Regiment and was appointed adjutant to the commander in chief Count V.P. Musin-Pushkin.

In 1784 Shcherbatov was granted to the gentleman of the bedchamber, and in 1795 in the chamberlain. In 1796 he was appointed as King of Arms, in 1798 made a Privy Councillor, and complained to the Senate, with Highest he was ordered to be present at the time the appeal department. In the same year he was determined guardian of St. Petersburg and the board of trustees granted to him was a gold decorated with diamonds snuffbox.

In 1802, due to illness Shcherbatov temporarily retired from the service, to which he returned only after three years: in 1805 he was appointed to be present in the Land Survey Department of the Governing Senate. In 1812 Shcherbatov was granted the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, and it was designated a member of the boards of the Society of Noble Ladies and the Order of the Institute of St. Catherine. From 1804 to 1811 Shcherbatov was a member of the St. Petersburg English club.

Frustrated health, often interfere with his official studies, and therefore, in consideration of his morbid state, in 1817 he was allowed to attend Highest in the Senate only, "when health allows it".

In 1818, Pavel Petrovich (the rank of privy councilor) was forced to retire due to illness in a foreign vacation, and in 1822 to retire. He died on May 21 1831 the year and was buried in St. Spirit church in Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

On 10 February 1794 the year Shcherbatov was married to the maid of honor of Catherine II the Countess Anastasia Valentinovna Musina-Pushkina (1774-1841), daughter of Field Marshal V. P. Musin-Pushkin; from April 18, 1816 - Dame St. Order. Catherine Small cross. She was buried beside her husband in St. Spirit church in Alexander Nevsky Lavra. There were three daughters:

Praskovya Pavlovna (1795-1820), was the first wife of Chamberlain Prince Boris Yusupov (1794-1849). She died in childbirth. She was buried in the family vault at the Yusupov Spassky church in. Kotov Moscow district.

Maria Pavlovna (b. And d. 1797)

Natalia Pavlovna (1801-1868), was married to the Count Alexander Nikolayevich Zubov (1797-1875), a colonel, a grandson of A. Suvorov and nephew of favorite P. Zubov."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет княгини А. В. Щербатовой (1808) / Portrait of the Princess A. Scherbatova (1808)

She was a wife of Paul Scherbatov.

Countess Anastasia Valentinovna Scherbatova, née Musina-Pushkina (1774-1841).





Портрет С. С. Щербатовой (1819) / Portrait of the Princess S. S. Scherbatova (1819)

"Princess Sofja Stepanovna Shcherbatova (1798-1885) - (Russian: Софья Степановна Щербатова, née Apraksina) was a prominent Russian philanthropist, the Dame Chevalier of the Order of Saint Catherine (1822). Princess Shcherbatova (since 1817, when she married Prince Alexey Shcherbatov) was the founder of The Grand Dames Helping the Poor charity (Damskoye Popetchitelstvo o Bednykh, 1844) which she remained the chairman of till 1876, the Nikolskaya Community (which proved particularly effective during the cholera epidemic in 1848 in Moscow and later during the Crimean War), many orphanages and shelters for homeless and elderly people. An heir to the famous Apraksin family, she was greatly interested in literature and arts, kept a fashionable Moscow salon and was a friend of Alexander Pushkin, Pyotr Vyazemsky and Mikhail Lermontov, among others."

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Портрет художника П. В. Басина (1829) / Portrait of P. Basin (1829)

"Pyotr Vasilievich Basin (1793-1877) - (Russian: Пётр Васильевич Басин) was a Russian religious, history and portrait painter.

He studied at the Imperial Academy of Arts under Vasily Shebuyev. After graduating, he spent the next eleven years in Rome on a fellowship, which he was given for his painting of Christ driving the money changers from the Temple. While there, he created almost 100 works.

Upon his return to Saint Petersburg in 1830, he was made an Academician for his portrayal of Socrates saving Alcibiades. The painting itself required some saving, as the ship carrying it from Rome was wrecked, causing water damage, and it had to be reconstructed on its arrival. After that, he began teaching and was appointed a Professor in 1836, a position he held until 1869 when he became a Professor Emeritus and State Councilor. He lost his eyesight in 1870.

During the time he was a Professor, he created numerous portraits and allegorical scenes for the restoration of the Winter Palace after the disastrous fire in 1837, but his religious works are the most familiar. They include forty paintings and icons for Saint Isaac's Cathedral.

His best-known student was Nikolai Ge."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Е. А. Телешовой (1828) / Portrait of Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Telesheva (1828)

"Ekaterina Telesheva (1804-1857) - Russian ballerina, favorite pupil Didlo and E. Kolosov."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Степана Фёдоровича Мочалова (1823) / Portrait of S. F. Mochalov (1823)

S. F. Mochalov (1775—1823) was Russian actor.





Портрет Е. С. Семёновой в роли Клеопатры / Portrait of Ekaterina Semenova as Cleopatra

"Ekaterina Semenova (1786–1849) was a Russian Empire actress.

In 1826, Semenova married Prince Ivan Gagarin."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Е. С. Семёновой (1815) / Portrait of Ekaterina Semenova (1815)





Портрет Н. С. Семеновой в роли Сивиллы Дельфийской в опере Г. Спонтини «Весталка» (1828) / Portrait of Nimfodora Semenova as Delphic Sibyl in the opera G. Spontini "Vestal" (1828)

"Nymphodora Semyonovna Semenova (1787-1876) - actress of the opera troupe of the Imperial Theatres, the younger sister of Catherine Semenova."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Ивана Афанасьевича Дмитревского (1814) / Portrait Ivan Dmitrevsky (1814)

"Ivan Afanasyevich Dmitrevsky (1734-1821) - (Russian: Ива́н Афана́сьевич Дмитре́вский) is generally regarded as the most influential actor of Russian Neoclassicism and "Russia's first great tragedian".

Together with his friend Fyodor Volkov he inaugurated the first Russian theatre in his native Yaroslavl (1750), later moving with the rest of the troupe to St Petersburg (1756). His tragic parts in Alexander Sumarokov's plays were admired by Catherine the Great and her friend Ekaterina Dashkova. Later, he delivered lectures on theatre in the Russian Academy, of which he was a member. In his writings and plays, Dmitrevsky emphasized reason over emotions, propagating "the loud, artificial declamatory acting style" of French Neoclassicism.

Stage actress and singer Agrafena Musina-Pushkina (1740–1782/86) studied with him, and later became his wife."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет неизвестной с косынкой на шее (1829) / Portrait of an unknown woman with a kerchief on her neck (1829)





Портрет мужчины / Portrait of a man





Портрет неизвестного (1830) / Portrait of an unknown man (1830)


 
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Портрет лейб-гусарского полковника Евграфа Владимировича Давыдова (1809) / Portrait of Hussars Colonel Evgraf Davydov (1809)

"Evgraf Vladimirovich Davydov (1775-1823) - Russian Major-General of the genus Davydov, chief Lubny Hussars. Member of the Napoleonic wars.

August 29, 1791 entered the service sergeant in the Guards Horse Regiment, January 10, 1798 transferred to a cornet in the Guards Hussar Regiment. March 31, 1803 - a colonel, took part in the campaign in 1805, commanded a squadron of the Guards Hussar Regiment, he distinguished himself in the battle of Austerlitz, where the "composure proved their great courage."

He participated in the campaign in 1807. In 1812 he commanded the Guards Hussars Regiment, July 14 seriously wounded with buckshot in his left hand under Ostrovno. Returned to service in the spring of 1813, he fought at Lutzen, for the difference in the battle at Kulm promoted August 24, 1813 to major general and appointed chief of Lubny Hussars.

E. Davydov was wounded by a grenade in the right leg and wounded kernel in the head in the battle of Leipzig. But he remained in the ranks. Him shot off his right hand and his left foot from the knee the same day. On January 8, 1814 in the service by the cavalry, the Russian Emperor Alexander I granted him a pension of 6000 rubles a year."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Алексея Владимировича Давыдова (1809) / Portrait of Alexei Davydov (1809)

He was a brother of Evgraf Davydov.





Портрет В. Д. Давыдова (1809) / Portrait of V. Davydov (1809)





Портрет Алексея Павловича Ланского (1813) / Portrait of Alexei Lansky (1813)





Портрет Михаила Павловича Ланского (1813) / Portrait of Mikhail Lansky (1813)

He was a brother of Alexei Lansky.





Портрет А. М. Ланской (1815) / Portrait of Alexandra Lanskaya (1815)





Портрет Василия Семёновича Хвостова (1814) / Portrait of Vasily Khvostov (1814)

"Khvostov Vasili Semenovich (1754-1832) - Russian official and writer, first Tomsk governor (1804-08), later senator. The younger brother of the poet Alexander Khvostov."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Дарьи Николаевны Хвостовой (1814) / Portrait of Darya Nikolaevna Khvostova (1814)

She was the third wife of Vasily Khvostov.





Портрет Екатерины Сергеевны Авдулиной (1822) / Portrait of Ekaterina Avdulina (1822)

Ekaterina Avdulina (1788—1832), nee Yakovleva (Яковлева).





Портрет графини Софьи Александровны Голенищевой-Кутузовой (1829) / Portrait of Countess Sophia Alexandrovna Golenischeva-Kutuzova (1829)

Sophia Alexandrovna Golenischeva-Kutuzova (1813—1881), nee Ribotpierre (Рибопьер). She was a daughter of Earl Alexander Ribotpierre - Russian courtier and diplomat of Swiss origin.


 
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Портрет В. А. Перовского в испанском костюме XVII века (1809) / Portrait of Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky [in the Spanish suit of the XVII century] (1809)

Another portrait - http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2020578&postcount=30





Портрет Александра Павловича Бакунина (1813) / Portrait of A. P. Bakunin (1813)

"Alexander Bakunin (1797-1862) - Lyceum student of the first issue, Tver civil governor (1842-1857), Privy Counsellor (1856)."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Е. П. Бакуниной (1813) / Portrait of Ekaterina Bakunina (1813)

She was a sister of Alexander Bakunin.

"Poltoratskaya Ekaterina Pavlovna, nee Bakunin (1795-1869) - maid of honor to the Russian court, the artist-amateur; the first young love A. Pushkin, inspired him to create the whole cycle of lyrical poems."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет М. В. Шишмарева (1827) / Portrait of M. V. Shishmarev (1827)





Портрет Афанасия Федоровича Шишмарева (1827) / Portrait of Athanasius Shishmarev (1827)

"Athanasius Fedorovich Shishmarev (1790-1875), was a successful breeder, a retired captain, a major landlord. Also had a reputation for well-known theater-goer.

From the illustrious ballerina Ekaterina Telesheva - http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2035189&postcount=48
begat five sons and a daughter.

Legitimate daughter from his first marriage are depicted in the famous painting K. Bryullov: - http://vnnforum.com/showpost.php?p=2021880&postcount=36
Olga Afanasevna (1821-?)
Alexandra Afanasevna (1824-1893)"

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Авдотьи Ивановны Молчановой с дочерью Елизаветой (1814) / Portrait of A. I. Molchanova with her daughter Elizabeth (1814)

Avdotya Molchanova (1786—1823), nee Kusheleva (Кушелева). She was the maid of honor at the court of Elizabeth Alekseevna.





Портрет Олимпиады Александровны Рюминой (1826) / Portrait of Olimpiada Aleksandrovna Ryumina (1826)

Olimpiada Ryumina (1807-1865), nee Borozdina (Бороздина).





Портрет графа Д. Н. Шереметева (1824) / Portrait of Count Dmitri Nikolaevich Sheremetev (1824)

Dmitri Sheremetev (1803-1871).





Портрет Гурко (1814) / Portrait of Gurko (1814)





Портрет В. Д. Гурко (1814) / Portrait of Gurko V. D. Gurko (1814)


 
Old May 3rd, 2016 #51
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Orest Kiprensky (XIV)



Портрет графини М. А. Потоцкой с мандолиной в руках, сестры ее - графини С. А. Шуваловой и эфиопянки (1836) / Portrait of Countess Maria Alexandrovna Pototskaya with a mandolin, Countess Sofya Alexandrovna Shuvalova and an Ethiopian girl (1836)

"Countess Maria Saltykova, in marriage Countess Potockaya (1807-1845).

Daughter of Prince A. N. Saltykov and his wife, Natalia, last Countess Golovkina.

In 1825, married with Count Boleslaw Potocki (1805-1893), the sixteenth descendant of Polish magnate Stanislav Szczęsny, born after his death.

The Countess took part in the evenings-meetings at O. Kiprensky in Rome. In 1835 the artist executed the portrait of Maria Potocka on the background of the south sea near her sister, the Countess Sofya Shuvalova (1806-1841) and an Ethiopian girl. It recently completed work of Kiprensky."

Text by Wikipedia.

Countess Sofya Shuvalova, nee Saltykova (1806-1841).





Портрет Егора Евграфовича Комаровского (1823) / Portrait of E. Komarovsky (1823)

Egor Komarovsky (1803—1875).





Портрет графа Сергея Петровича Бутурлина (1824) / Portrait of Count Sergei Petrovich Buturlin (1824)

"Sergey Buturlin (1803-1873) - General of Infantry, a member of the Military Council of the Russian Empire; bibliophile.

Descended from an old Russian noble family. The younger son of a retired captain of the Guards Regiment Izmailovsky Buturlin Peter Mikhailovich (1763-1828) from his marriage with Princess Mary Alekseevna Shakhovskaya (1768-1803).

Wife (1840) - Princess Maria S. Gagarina (1815-1902), the maid of honor courtyard, the daughter of Prince S. I. Gagarin.

After receiving education at home in 1820, he has been identified as a cadet in the Cavalry Regiment, where two years later (11 September 1822) promoted to cornet.

In 1825, during the uprising of the Decembrists, he remained loyal to the emperor, and was awarded, among others, The highest appreciation of His Imperial Majesty. March 19, 1826 promoted to lieutenant.

He participated in military operations in Turkey, Poland, Chechnya, Dagestan , Hungary and the Crimea.

Awards:
The Order of St. Anne's 4-th degree (1826)
The Order of St. Vladimir 4-th degree with a bow (1828)
The Order of St. Anne 2nd degree (1831)
Badge of the Order for the military advantage of the 4th degree (1831)
Snuff-box with the monogram of His Majesty, decorated with diamonds (1844)
The Order of St. Stanislaus 1-st degree (1849)
The Order of St. Anna 1 st degree (1850)
The Order of St. George 4-th degree
Order of St. Vladimir 2 nd Class with Swords (1854)
Gold sword "For Bravery" , decorated with diamonds (10 November 1854)
Order of the White Eagle with Swords (1855)
Snuff-box with a portrait of His Majesty (1856)
Insignia of the XXV years of irreproachable service (1857)
Order of St. Alexander Nevsky (8 February 1859)
Diamond signs to the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky (30 August 1867)
Snuff-box with a portrait of His Majesty's Diamond Jewelry (1871)

foreign:

Austrian Order of the Iron Crown 1st Class (1850)
Austrian Order of St. Stephen's Commander's Cross (1850)
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle 2nd degree with a star (1851)
Austrian Order of Leopold, 1st degree (1858)
Prussian Order of the Red Eagle 1st Class (1858)"

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Е. М. Хитрово (1816-1817) / Portrait of Elizabeth Khitrovo (1816-1817)

"Elizabeth Khitrovo (1783-1839) the first marriage - Countess Tizengauzen, nee Golenishcheva-Kutuzova - the daughter of Mikhail Kutuzov, a friend of A. Pushkin. Mistress of the famous St. Petersburg salon.

Elizabeth was the third daughter of Mikhail Kutuzov (1745-1813) and Catherine Ilinichny née Bibikova (1754-1824). I got customary for the ladies of the time home education.

Elizabeth kept her salon, which has become a kind of center of intellectual life. It was visited by Pushkin, Zhukovsky, Vyazemsky.

June 6, 1802 Elizabeth married the adjutant of his father, Ferdinand of the ducal sort Tizengauzenu. The marriage did not last long: December 2, 1805 at the battle of Austerlitz, raising soldiers to attack, Ferdinand Tizengauzen was seriously wounded, taken prisoner and died a few days later.

Only in August 1811, Elizabeth married for the second time by general Nikolai Fedorovich Khitrovo appointed in 1815 Charge d'Affaires of Russia in Florence.
The second marriage of Elizabeth Mikhailovna was also short: May 19, 1819 Nicholas Khitrovo do not differ good health, died.

Among personal friends Khitrov family were the Prussian King Frederick William III of (one time cared for the eldest daughter of Elizabeth Mikhailovna Catherine), the future King of Belgium, Leopold, and many other members of the European sovereign houses."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Никиты Михайловича Муравьева (1813) / Portrait of Nikita Mikhailovich Muraviev (1813)

"Nikita Mikhailovich Muravyov (1796-1843) - (Russian: Никита Михайлович Муравьёв) was an Imperial Guards staff officer and plotter in what led to the Decembrist revolt of 1825.

Muravyov was active in a number of proto-Decembrist organizations. In 1816, he was among the founders of the Union of Salvation, a secret society. In 1820, he spoke out for republican government in the Union of Welfare. After the Union of Welfare's 1821 dissolution, Muravyov joined the supreme duma and was a leader in the Northern Society, and was elected to the Southern Society's directory. He wrote a draft constitution for a Russian state, and a tract "Curious Conversation" arguing the need to rise against despotism.

He was on leave in the country when the Decembrist revolt occurred on 14 December 1825, and did not participate directly in it. But he was complicit, arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress. He was condemned to death, but the sentence was commuted to 20 years of hard labor. He was assigned to the Nerchinsk Mines, then in 1835 exiled to Irkutsk Province where he died in 1843."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Н. М. Муравьева (1815) / Portrait of Nikita Mikhailovich Muraviev (1815)





Портрет И. А. Анненкова / Portrait of Ivan Aleksandrovich Annenkov

"Ivan Annenkov (1802-1878) - Decembrist, son of Alexander Nikanorovich Annenkov and Anna Ivanovna Jacobi.

He received education at home. In 1817-1819 attended lectures at Moscow University (the course is not finished). In the exam at the General Staff August 10, 1819 with the rank of cadets admitted to the Guards Cavalry Regiment. On November 1, 1819 - estandart-Junker, cornet - 21 December 1819, the Lieutenant - from 13 March 1823. Among his friends were many future Decembrists. In 1824 Annenkov was adopted P. Pestel in St. Petersburg branch of the Southern Society, was an ardent supporter "Russian Truth" of Pestel.

December 14, 1825 Annenkov was on the Senate Square, but on the opposite side of his comrades. After the defeat of the uprising, he was arrested and sentenced to 20 years hard labor, deprivation of rank and nobility, a life settlement in Siberia.

Later, as a result of the application of influential relatives, life of hard labor was reduced to 15 years. December 10, 1826 he was sent to Siberia.

Six months before the uprising Ivan meets Pauline Gebl - daughter of Napoleon's officers, who came to Moscow as a milliner employed in a trading firm Dyumansi.

In one of the villages he had arranged with the priest and found witnesses to marry Pauline, but she, fearing the wrath of the mother refused the rite.

December 14 turned all their plans and dreams. Almost without resources, not knowing the Russian language, Pauline Gebl gets to Chita. She is married to Ivan Alexandrovich, there in a wooden Archangel Michael Church. Only at the wedding with the groom's shackles were removed.

Romantic love story of Pauline Gebl and Ivan Annenkov inspired by Alexandre Dumas in the novel "Fencing Master".

Sent to Siberia in chains. In January 1827 he delivered to the Chita jail. In Petrovsky factory from September 1830. On settlement of December 1835 the villiage Belskoye - Irkutsk province. Later in Turinsk - Tobolsk Province. It was allowed to enter the civil service in September 1839 by Annenkov mother's request. From November 1839 - Office minister Turinsk Zemsky court. Since June 1841 in the State Office of Tobolsk total provincial government. Inspector settlements Tobolsk expedition of exiles from September 1843. After he served in Tobolsk order of exiles and the order of public charity.

Only after thirty years of his life in Siberia - in 1856 - Annenkov received permission to leave the places of exile. Living in St. Petersburg and Moscow were forbidden. Annenkov settled in Nizhny Novgorod in June 1857."

Text by Wikipedia.





Портрет Анны Федоровны Фурман / Portrait of Anna Furman





Портрет Н. С. Мосолова (1811) / Portrait of Nicholas Semenovich Mosolov (1811)





Портрет отца художника Адама Карловича Швальбе (1804) / Portrait of the artist's father, Adam Karlovich Schwalbe (1804)

He wasn't the biological father of the artist.
Orest Kiprensky was the illegitimate son of the landowner A. Dyakonov.


 
Old May 3rd, 2016 #52
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Vasily Vereshchagin



Василий Васильевич Верещагин - (October 26, 1842 – April 13, 1904).





Vasily Vereshchagin in his final year in Sea Cadet Corps












"Vasily Vereshchagin, one of the most distinguished Russian battle painters of the time, had the following to say about war, “Does war have two sides - one that is pleasant and attractive and the other that is ugly and repulsive? No, there is only one war, that attempts to force the enemy to kill, injure, or take as many people prisoner as possible, while the stronger adversary beats the weaker until the weaker pleads for mercy.”

He is also known for his studies of Asian life, and canvases featuring British-Indian history. Because of his strong patriotic ideas, the depth and acuteness of his subjects, and his vivid imagery, the artist made a tangible contribution to the genre of historical painting in the late nineteenth century. His pictures were exhibited in the biggest cities of Russia and abroad. Most of his works are collected in the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow and the State Russian Museum in St.Petersburg.

A career choice

Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin was born in the town of Cherepovets into the family of a Russian landowner of noble descent. When he was eight years old, he was sent to the Tsarskoe Selo near St. Petersburg to enter the Alexander Cadet corps. Three years later he entered the naval school in St Petersburg, making his first voyage in 1858. He served on the frigate “Kamchatka”, sailing to Denmark, France, and Egypt. Vereshchagin graduated from the Cadet School at the top of his class, but he could not overcome his passion for art and entered the Academy of Arts in 1860 to begin the study drawing in earnest. His father was outraged by his actions and cut off all material assistance to his son.

However, Vereshchagin worked and studied hard, winning a medal two years later in 1863 from the St. Petersburg Academy for his piece “Ulysses slaying the Suitors”.

However, dissatisfied with the conservatism and idealistic conventions of the academic system of teaching, he left the academy the same year. The “Revolt of 14 Artists” who were opposed to academic teaching and later formed the Itinerant movement took place at this time. The Critical Realism of the Itinerants always amazed Vereshchagin, and he later took part in some of their exhibitions. In 1864, after a trip to Paris, Vereshchagin came under the influence of Jean-Léon Gérôme, visiting his studio at the “Ecole des Beaux-Arts”. Gérôme’s compositional skill in his historical paintings and his effective handling of detail made a great impression on Vereshchagin.

War experience and a productive period

Though Vereshchagin did not become a naval officer, his career was linked with war, which in turn became the main topic of his paintings. “I loved the sun all my life, and wanted to paint sunshine. When I happened to see warfare and say what I thought about it, I rejoiced that I would be able to devote myself to the sun once again. But the fury of war continued to pursue me,” Vereshchagin wrote. He took part in military actions in Turkestan and in the Balkans. In the Salon of 1866, he exhibited his drawing “Dukhobors chanting their Psalms”, and in the next year he accompanied General Kaufman's expedition to Turkestan. At that time Turkestan was a place of military confrontation. The painter decided to bear witness to the war and depict it true to life in his canvases. In 1868 he joined the Russians defending the Samarkand fortress. He received the cross of St. George for bravery and courage for his military service at the siege of Samarkand. In Vereshchagin's paintings, war appeared as a dramatic event. The artist painfully and bitterly regretted the enormous toll of human lives. In a series of battle-pieces, Vereshchagin developed his thoughts about the barbarity of orders on the battlefield, and about the heroism and courage of Russian soldiers and simple people. The exotic character of the sunny East and the people's colorful dress did not blind the great artist and humanist to their poverty and lack of civil rights. The paintings “Beggars in Samarkand”, “Opium Smokers”, “Sale of a Slave Child”, “Uzbek Woman in Tashkent” and many others attracted just as much attention as the artist’s battle pieces.

Vereshchagin's battle paintings soon enjoyed great popularity both in Russia and abroad, and helped determine the basic orientation of the artist's direction. From his earliest works, Vereshchagin spoke out in protest against aggressive wars. Having spent three years in Turkestan, Vereshchagin produced a number of war pictures and exhibited one of them, “The Apotheosis of War”, portraying a pyramid of skulls “dedicated to all conquerors: past, present and those yet to come”.

Vereshchagin’s war paintings made such a great impression that it gave rise to irritation and even fear in military circles in Russia and abroad. One day, in 1882, Vereshchagin’s exhibition in Berlin was visited by Field Marshal Helmuth Moltke, a German theorist who viewed war as something inevitable and conducive to technical and even moral progress. Vereshchagin brought Moltke to his painting ''The Apotheosis of War". The picture evoked a sort of confusion in the Field Marshal. After his visit to the exhibition, Moltke issued an order forbidding German soldiers to visit it. The Austrian war minister also imposed a taboo on visits to Vereshchagin’s exhibition. He declined the artist's offer to let Austrian officers see his pictures at the 1881 exhibition in Vienna free of charge. A ban on exhibitions of Vereshchagin’s work was also enforced in Russia, as well as a ban on reproductions of them in books and periodicals amidst accusations of slandering the Russian army. The artist took these unjust accusations badly and burned three of his paintings, “The Forgotten Soldier”, “They Have Encircled”, and “Pursue and They Entered”. For thirty years, the Tsarist government did not acquire a single picture by the already world-famous artist. Pavel Tretyakov bought most of his Turkestan works.

Nevertheless, by the late 19th century Vereshchagin had gained popularity not only in Russia, but also abroad. His name never left the pages of the European and American press. The well-known American novelist Theodore Dreiser was influenced by the personality of Vereshchagin when writing the main character of his novel “The Genius”, the artist Eugene.

Vereshchagin was an indefatigable traveler, going to Turkestan in 1869, the Himalayas, India and Tibet in 1873, and back to India in 1884. On these journeys he had to contend with all sorts of difficulties: he almost froze to death in the snowy heights of the Himalayas, and in the fatiguing tropical heat he fell ill with a fever. It was a productive period, however, and he painted more than 150 sketches depicting the grandeur of Indian white-stone architecture. The artist painted some amazing Orientalist paintings there, including “Taj Mahal Mausoleum in Agra”. Vereshchagin also decided to devote a series of pictures to the British takeover of India. His plan was to create a large pictorial poem about the historical fate of India, about its transformation from a powerful independent country into a British colony. His plan was only partly realized, however, with some of the best paintings in the cycle being “The Procession of the British” and “Native Authorities in Jeypore”.

Russo-Turkish campaign

Though a pacifist, he felt morally obligated to fight in the Russo-Turkish campaign of 1877, where he often found himself in the thick of the battle and was wounded several times.

Vereshchagin adhered to the opinion that it was impossible to depict the reality of war pieces without taking part in the attacks, storms, and victories personally. He wanted to feel and go through it all himself. “It would be impossible,” Vereshchagin wrote, “to achieve the aim I have set myself, to give society a picture of war as it really is, by observing battles through binoculars from a comfortable distance. I have to feel and go through it all myself. I have to participate in the attacks, storms, victories and defeats, experience the cold, disease, and wounds. I must not be afraid to sacrifice my flesh and my blood, otherwise my pictures will mean nothing.” Vereshchagin was present at the crossing of the Shipka Pass and at the Siege of Pleven, where his brother was killed and he was dangerously wounded during the preparations for the crossing of the Danube River near Rustchuk. At the conclusion of the war he acted as secretary to General Mikhail Skobelev at San Stefano. These experiences gave him the firsthand knowledge he needed to create numerous gritty war paintings. Unlike most contemporary battle pieces depicting war as a kind of parade, Vereshchagin’s paintings revealed its viciousness, showing soldiers as the most important element in war and the chief victim of it.

Post-war paintings

After the war, the artist settled in Munich, where he produced his war pictures so rapidly that he was freely accused of employing assistants. The sensational subjects of his pictures and the representation of the horrors of war attracted the public in Paris in 1881, and subsequently in London, Berlin, Dresden, Vienna and other cities. His epic portrayal of “The State Procession of the Prince of Wales into Jaipur” in 1876 is regarded to be the third largest painting in the world. He aroused much controversy with his picture “Blowing from Guns in British India”, which depicted executions carried out by tying victims to the barrels of cannons. Vereshchagin's detractors argued that such executions had only occurred during the Indian rebellion of 1857, but the painting depicted modern soldiers of the 1880’s, implying that the practice was normal. Because of its photographic style, the painting appeared to present itself as an impartial record of a real event. Vereshchagin defended himself in an interview in 1877 by saying that this mode of execution was “the most humane in existence” and that if there were another rebellion, the British would use it again.

A journey to Syria and Palestine in 1884 amazed him, prompting him to paint an equally discussed set of portrayals from the New Testament. Vereshchagin's paintings caused controversy over portraying the figure of Christ with what was thought at the time to be an unseemly realism. His depiction of Jesus's features was thought of as excessively vulgar and overly Semitic in ethnicity.

Napoleonic canvases

During the last 15 years of his life, he worked on a series of paintings devoted to Napoleon’s campaign and Russia’s courage in the war of 1812. The artist worked on the paintings, more than twenty, with great historic curiosity. His aim was to show in pictures the great national spirit of the Russian people and their heroism in fighting the enemy. The “1812” series based on Napoleon's Russian campaign (on which Vereshchagin also wrote a book) seems to have been inspired by Tolstoy's “War and Peace”. In 1893 the artist eventually settled in Moscow, where these canvases were painted. The 1812 series begins with “The Battle of Borodino”, to which Vereshchagin devoted two pictures “Napoleon on the Borodino Heights” and “The End of the Battle of Borodino”. The stay of Napoleon's army in Moscow is reflected in fourteen paintings, including “In the Assumption Cathedral”, “The Fire”, “Through the Fire” and “Execution in the Kremlin”.

Fatal fighting

Vereshchagin continued to travel until the last day of his brave and eventful life. He visited Syria, Palestine, America, the Philippines, Cuba, and Japan.
The artist took part in the battles of the Russo-Japanese war, which proved to be fatal for Vereshchagin. During the war, Vereshchagin was in the Far East with the American troops in the Philippines, and with the Russian troops in Manchuria. He was invited by Admiral Stepan Makarov to join him aboard Makarov's flagship “Petropavlovsk”. On April 13, 1904, “Petropavlovsk” struck two mines while returning to Port Arthur and sunk, taking with her most of the crew, including both Admiral Makarov and Vereshchagin. According to eye-witnesses, Vereshchagin spent the last minutes of his life coolly drawing the panorama opening before him in his album. Vereshchagin's last work, a picture of a council of war presided over by Admiral Makarov, was recovered almost undamaged.

Vereshchagin’s canvases are reflective and echo his eventful life full of heroic deeds. He is one of those brave artists whose work comes from the very heart of the battle, not from one’s imagination."

Written by Tatyana Klevantseva - http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-...-vereshchagin/





Апофеоз войны. Посвящается всем великим завоевателям, прошедшим, настоящим и будущим (1871) / The Apotheosis of War. Dedicated to all conquerors: past, present and those yet to come (1871)





После удачи (1868) / After good luck (1868)





В госпитале (1901) / In the Hospital (1901)





Письмо матери (1901) / Letter to Mother (1901)





Письмо прервано (1901) / Interrupted Letter (1901)





Письмо осталось неоконченным (1901) / Letter Remained Unfinished (1901)





Высматривают (1873) / Spy out (1873)





Нападают врасплох (1871) / Unawares attack (1871)





Торжествуют (1872) / Triumph (1872)





Представляют трофеи (1872) / Represent trophies (1872)



Last edited by Alex Him; May 5th, 2016 at 10:31 PM.
 
Old May 4th, 2016 #53
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Vasily Vereshchagin (II)



Прогулка в лодке (1903-1904) / A walk in the boat (1903-1904)





Храм в Токио (1871-1873) / Temple in Tokyo (1871-1873)

"Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, and is both the capital and largest city of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government. Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo."

Text by Wikipedia.





Японский нищий (1904) / Japanese beggar (1904)





Вход в храм Никко / Entrance to a Temple in Nikko

"Nikkō is a city located in Tochigi Prefecture, in the northern Kantō region of Japan. As of May 2015, the city had an estimated population of 84,197 and a population density of 58.1 persons per km². Its total area was 1,449.83 km². it is a popular destination for Japanese and international tourists. Attractions include the mausoleum of shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (Nikkō Tōshō-gū) and that of his grandson Iemitsu (Iemitsu-byō Taiyū-in), and the Futarasan Shrine, which dates to the year 767. There are also many famous hot springs (onsen) in the area. Elevations range from 200 to 2,000 m. The Japanese saying "Never say 'kekkou' until you've seen Nikko"—kekko meaning beautiful, magnificent or "I am satisfied"—is a reflection of the beauty and sites in Nikkō."

Text by Wikipedia.





Шинтоистский храм в Никко (1904) / Sinto Temple in Nikko (1904)





Японский священник (1904) / Japanese priest (1904)





Японка (1904) / Japanese woman (1904)





Японка (1903) / Japanese woman (1903)





Курильские острова (1872) / Kurile Islands (1872)

"The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately 1,300 km (810 mi) northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. There are 56 islands and many minor rocks. It consists of Greater Kuril Ridge and Lesser Kuril Ridge. The total land area is 10,503.2 square kilometres (4,055.3 sq mi)[2] and the total population is 19,434.

All the islands are currently under Russian jurisdiction. Japan claims the two southernmost large islands (Iturup and Kunashir) as part of its territory, as well as Shikotan and the Habomai islets, which has led to the ongoing Kuril Islands dispute. The disputed islands are known in Japan as the country's "Northern Territories".

Text by Wikipedia.





Море / Sea


 
Old May 5th, 2016 #54
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Vasily Vereshchagin (III)



Перед Москвой в ожидании депутации бояр (1891-1892) / Near Moscow in anticipation of the deputation of boyars (1891-1892)

"A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century to the 17th century."

Text by Wikipedia.

There wasn't boyars in that era.
It word was used in the sense of "the highest aristocracy".





В Кремле - пожар! (1887-1895) / The fire in the Kremlin (1887-1895)





В Успенском соборе (1887-1895) / In the Cathedral of the Dormition (1887-1895)

"The Cathedral of the Dormition (Russian: Успенский Собор, or Uspensky sobor), also known as the Assumption Cathedral or Cathedral of the Assumption is a Russian Orthodox church dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos. It is located on the north side of Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia, where a narrow alley separates the north from the Patriarch's Palace with the Twelve Apostles Church. Southwest is Ivan the Great Bell Tower. Separately in the southwest, also separated by a narrow passage from the church, is the Palace of Facets. The Cathedral is regarded as the mother church of Muscovite Russia. In its present form it was constructed between 1475–79 at the behest of the Moscow Grand Duke Ivan III by the Italian architect Aristotele Fioravanti. From 1547 to 1896 it is where the Coronation of the Russian monarch was held. In addition, it is the burial place for most of the Moscow Metropolitans and Patriarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church."

Text by Wikipedia.





Маршал Даву в Чудовом монастыре (1887-1895) / Marshal Davout in the Chudov Monastery (1887-1895)

"The Chudov Monastery (Чу́дов монасты́рь) (more formally known as Alexius’ Archangel Michael Monastery) was founded in the Moscow Kremlin in 1358 by Metropolitan Alexius of Moscow. The monastery was dedicated to the miracle (chudo in Russian) of the Archangel Michael at Chonae (feast day: September 19). The Monastery was closed in 1918, and dismantled in 1929.

The construction of the monastery together with its katholikon (cathedral) was finished in 1365. The katholikon was replaced with a new one in 1431 and then once again in 1501–1503. It was traditionally used for baptising the royal children, including future Tsars Feodor I, Aleksey I and Peter the Great. The monastery’s hegumen (abbot) was considered the first among the hegumens of all the Russian monasteries until 1561.

Alongside Simonov Monastery and Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra, the Chudov Monastery was the biggest center of the Muscovite book culture and learning. Prominent monks of the monastery, who dedicated their lives to translating and correcting ecclesiastic books, include Maximus the Greek, Yepifany Slavinetsky and Karion Istomin. Gennady, who as Archbishop of Novgorod, patronized the first complete codex of the Bible in Slavic in 1499, was hegumen of the monastery prior to his archiepiscopate.

Patriarch Hermogenes was starved to death by the Poles in the monastery vaults in 1612. The Time of Troubles over, they opened the Greek-Latin School with support from Patriarch Filaret. In 1744–1833, the cloister accommodated the Moscow Ecclesiastic Consistory. As time went by, new churches were added to the monastery complex. These included the Church of St Alexius the Metropolitan and the Church of the Annunciation (both built in 1680) and the Church of Saint Andrew (1887).

During the French invasion of Russia (1812), the French Marshal Louis Nicolas Davout commandeered the monastery for his own use. A painting by Vasili Vereshchagin shows Davout desecrating the cathedral, using the sanctuary itself as his office. Following the Bolshevik Revolution, the Chudov Monastery was closed down in 1918. All of its structures were dismantled in 1929, as part of the Soviet Union's ongoing policy of state atheism.

On the spot of the Chudov Monastery and the nearby Ascension Convent the Soviets built the Red Commanders School. All of the monastery’s manuscripts of the 11th-18th centuries were transferred to the State Historical Museum. The relics of Metropolitan Alexius were first moved from the Church of St. Alexius (which he had built) to the Cathedral of the Dormition and then to another church in Moscow. Of the hundred or so other interments in the monastery (including Archbishop Gennady), their remains were lost and their whereabouts are still unknown."


"Louis-Nicolas d'Avout (1770–1823), better known as Davout, 1st Duke of Auerstaedt, 1st Prince of Eckmühl, was a French general who was Marshal of the Empire during the Napoleonic era. His talent for war along with his reputation as a stern disciplinarian, earned him the title "The Iron Marshal". He is ranked along with Masséna and Lannes as one of Napoleon's finest commanders. His loyalty and obedience to Napoleon were absolute. During his lifetime, Davout's name was commonly spelled Davoust, which is how it appears on the Arc de Triomphe and in much of the correspondence between Napoleon and his generals."

Texts by Wikipedia.





В Городне - пробиваться или отступать? (1887-1895) / At Gorodnia. What is better the breakthrough or the retreat? (1887-1895)

Picture depicts the events taking place during the Battle of Maloyaroslavets.

"Napoleon was very much dissatisfied with the results of the battle. At night, when he returned to the village Gorodnia, he took council with his Marshals, discussing only one subject: would they engage in a general battle tomorrow or avoid it?"

http://oooprogrammist.narod.ru/rusge...2/1812_031.htm





На этапе. Дурные вести из Франции (1887-1895) / On the way. Bad news from France (1887-1895)





Не замай - дай подойти! (1887-1895) / Wait. Let them come nearer (1887-1895)





С оружием в руках - расстрелять! (1887-1895) / They was captured with arms. Shoot them! (1887-1895)





В штыки! Ура! Ура! (1887-1895) / Soldiers go to the bayonet attack! Hurrah! Hurrah! (1887-1895)





На большой дороге. Отступление, бегство (1887-1895) / Retreat and escape on the high road. (1887-1895)


 
Old May 5th, 2016 #55
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Наполеон на Бородинских высотах (1897) / Napoleon on the Borodino altitudes (1897)

"The Battle of Borodino (Russian: Бородинское сражение), fought on September 7, 1812, was a battle fought in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia. The fighting involved around 250,000 troops and left at least 70,000 casualties, making Borodino the deadliest day of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon's Grande Armée launched an attack against the Russian army, driving it back from its initial positions but failing to gain a decisive victory. Both armies were exhausted after the battle and the Russians withdrew from the field the following day. Borodino was the last Russian effort at stopping the French advance on Moscow, which fell a week later; because the Russian army was not decisively defeated, the French had no clear way of bringing Czar Alexander to capitulate, resulting in the retreat from Moscow and the defeat of the French invasion."

Text by Wikipedia.





Конец Бородинской битвы (1899-1900) / The end of Borodino battle (1899-1900)





В Петровском дворце (1895) / Napoleon in the Petrovsky Palace (1895)

"Originally built in the late 18th century for Empress Catherine the Great (Catherine II), the Palace was used as a resting place for travelling noblemen on their journeys from Saint Petersburg to Moscow.

Russian architect Matvey Kazakov designed this luxurious building in the finest tradition of the Romantic Neo-Gothic style. Palace gardens were later transformed into a beautiful landscape park, which is known as one of the most picturesque parks in Moscow.

All Russian Emperors paid visits to the Palace. The Petroff Palace was the last step in the sovereigns’ ascension to the throne as they stopped here for a refreshing break before arriving at the coronation ceremony, which always took place in Moscow. During the 1812 war, Napoleon Bonaparte’s headquarters were set up in the Petroff Palace. From this very place, Napoleon watched the fire of Moscow, the city that refused to bow down to the conqueror. The Palace, ravaged after Napoleon’s flight from Moscow, was reconstructed by the Russian Emperor Nicholas I. Once again, the renovated halls of the Palace were ready to welcome the members of the royal family, as well as receive important noble delegations."

http://www.petroffpalace.mos.ru/en/history





В покоренной Москве ("Поджигатели" или "Расстрел в Кремле") - (1897-1898) / In defeated Moscow ("the arsonists" or "Shooting in the Kremlin") - (1897-1898)





Возвращение из Петровского дворца (1895) / The return from the Petrovsky Palace (1895)





Зарево Замоскворечья (1896-1897) / A glow of Zamoskvorechye (1896-1897)

"Zamoskvorechye District (Russian: райо́н Замоскворе́чье) is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.

The district contains the eastern half of historical Zamoskvorechye area (its western half is administered by Yakimanka District), and the territories of Zatsepa Street and Paveletsky Rail Terminal south of the Garden Ring.

Territories on the right (southern) bank of Moskva River, now known as Zamoskvorechye, were first colonized in the 14th century. Two river crossings, west and east of the Moscow Kremlin's walls, provide access to roads which originally continued south to Kaluga and Serpukhov, and served as main axes of settlement."

Text by Wikipedia.





Сквозь пожар (1899-1900) / Napoleon moves through the fire (1899-1900)





Наполен и маршал Лористон (1899-1900) / Napoleon and marshal Lauriston (1899-1900)

"Jacques Alexandre Bernard Law, marquis de Lauriston (1 February 1768 – 12 June 1828) was a French soldier and diplomat of Scottish descent, and a general officer in the French army during the Napoleonic Wars."

Text by Wikipedia.

"...Then Napoleon made yet another attempt to strike a peace deal with Alexander I. He sent marquis Jacques Lauriston, a former French ambassador to Russia, to Kutuzov’s camp at Tarutino. Lauriston objected, saying it would make the Russians aware that the French were in a tough situation. But Napoleon cut him short. “I need peace, I need it absolutely, at any cost. My honor is at stake”.

http://sputniknews.com/voiceofrussia...49374/2317695/





Ночной привал Великой армии (1896-1897) / The night bivouac of the Grand Army (1896-1897)





На морозе (1899-1900) / Napoleon in the frost (1899-1900)


 
Old May 7th, 2016 #56
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Развалины китайской кумирни. Ак-Кент (1869-1870) / Ruins of Chinese pagoda. Ak-Kent (1869-1870)





Развалины в Чугучаке (1869-1870) / Ruins in Chugachuk (1869-1870)

"Tacheng (Qoqek/Sawesek) or Chöchek is a county-level city (1994 est. pop. 56,400) and the administrative seat of Tacheng Prefecture, in northern Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, one of the autonomous regions of China.

The city was sometimes called Tarbaghatay or Tarbagatai (Mongolian: 'having marmots') and was once known in European languages as Chuguchak (based on its name in the Mongolian language). The current Uyghur name is Qöqäk Xäĥri.

It is located in the Dzungarian Basin, some 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Chinese border with Kazakhstan. For a long time it has been a major center for trade with Central Asia because it is an agricultural hub. Its industries include food processing, textiles, and utilities.

The city suffered harshly in 1865, during the fighting between the Qing forces and the Dungan and Uyghur rebels."

Text by Wikipedia.





Развалины театра в Чугучаке (1869-1870) / Ruins of the theater in Chugachuk (1869-1870)





Садовая калитка в Чугучаке (1869-1870) / Garden gate in Chugachuk (1869-1870)





Китайская палатка (1869-1870) / Chinese tent (1869-1870)





Китаец (1873) / Chinese man (1873)





Китаянка (1873) / Chinese woman (1873)





Китайский чиновник племени сибо (1869–1870) / Chinese official of tribe Sibe (1869–1870)

"The Sibe or Xibo (pinyin: Xībó) are a Tungusic people living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin (bordering North Korea) and Shenyang in Liaoning. The Sibe form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by China.

The Sibe are known by several variations of their name. The self-appellation of the Sibe people is pronounced Śivə, the official Chinese term is Xibo, in Russian literature the terms sibin'ci / šibin'ci are used, while in English works the name Sibe has been established, which corresponds to the written form.

According to the Russian scholar Elena P. Lebedeva, the Sibe people originated as a southern, Tungusic-speaking offshoot of the ancient Shiwei people. They lived in small town-like settlements, a portion of them nomadic, in the Songyuan and Qiqihar areas of what is now Jilin.

When the Buyeo kingdom was conquered by the Xianbei in 286, the southern Shiwei started practicing agriculture. Some historians have theorized that the Xianbei were the direct progenitors of the Sibe, a theory described as politically motivated. Pamela Kyle Crossley writes the Xianbei might have undergone a language shift from an earlier Turkic or proto-Mongolian language to a Tungusic one. However, the name "Sibe" was not used in historical records during Xianbei times.

The Han, Cao Wei, and Jin dynasty (265–420) at times controlled the Sibe until the advent of the Göktürks, who accorded the Sibe lower status than did the Chinese dynasties. At the height of their territorial dispersion, the Sibe lived in an area bounded by Jilin to the east, Hulunbuir to the west, the Nen River to the north, and the Liao River to the south. After the fall of the Liao dynasty, the Sibe became vassals of the Khorchin Mongols who moved to the Nen and Songhua river valleys in 1438 after the Khorchin were defeated by the Oirats.

Nurhaci, the founder of the Manchu people, routed the Sibe during the battle of Gure in 1593 on his way to founding the Qing dynasty of China. From that point, the Qing contracted the Sibe for logistical support against the Russian Empire's expansionism on China's northern border. Crossley claims that the Sibe were so "well known to Russians moving toward the Pacific" that the Russians named Siberia after them. In 1692, the Khorchin dedicated the Sibe, the Gūwalca and the Daur to the Kangxi Emperor in exchange for silver. The Sibe were incorporated into the Eight Banners and were stationed in Qiqihar and other cities in Northeast China.

In 1700, some 20,000 Qiqihar Sibes were resettled in Hohhot (modern Inner Mongolia); 36,000 Songyuan Sibes were resettled in Shenyang, Liaoning. The relocation of the Sibe from Qiqihar is believed by Gorelova to be linked to the Qing's complete annihilation of the Manchu clan Hoifan (Hoifa) in 1697 and the Manchu tribe Ula in 1703 after they revolted against the Qing. According to Jerry Norman, after a revolt by the Qiqihar Sibes in 1764, the Qianlong Emperor ordered an 800-man military escort to transfer 18,000 Sibe to the Ili River of Dzungaria.

In Ili, the Xinjiang Sibe built Buddhist monasteries and cultivated vegetables, tobacco, and poppies. The Sibe population declined after the Qing used them to suppress the Dungan Revolt (1862–77) by the Hui, and to fight against the Russian occupation of Ili during the revolt. During the Republic of China (1912–49), many northeastern Sibe joined anti-Japanese volunteer armies, while northwestern Sibe fought against the Kuomintang during the Ili Rebellion."

Text by Wikipedia.





Дети племени Солонов (1869-1870) / The children of the tribe Solon (1869-1870)

"The Solon people are a subgroup of the Ewenki (Evenk) people of northeastern Asia. They live in China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Heilongjiang Province, and constitute the majority of China's Ewenki.

The Ewenki (also spelled Evenki) people are spread throughout the taiga forests of much of northeastern Asia, including most of Eastern Siberia and parts of Northeastern China. According to Juha Janhunen's classification, the Ewenki people found in China can be classified into three subethnic groups:

The Solon (Suǒlún Èwēnkè, "Solon Ewenki")
The Orogen
The "Manchurian Reindeer Tungus" - a small group which are known to the Chinese as the "Yakut" (Yǎkùtè Èwēnkè, "Yakut Ewenki"). They are the only group in China engaged in reindeer herding.
Another subethnic group in China's Inner Mongolia, the Khamnigan are bilingual, speaking the Ewenki language along with a Mongolian dialect. Janhunen believes that their primary ethnic affiliation is Mongolian rather than Ewenki, and does not include them into his classification of China's Ewenki.

The above classification is different from the PRC's official classification, according to which the Oroqen are considered a separate ethnic group, while the official Ewenki ethnic group of China includes not only the Solons and the "Manchurian Reindeer Tungus", but also the Khamnigan (or, officially, the "Tungus Ewenki", Tōnggǔsī Èwēnkè).

As both the "Manchurian Reindeer Tungus" and the Khamnigans are quite small groups (perhaps around 200 persons in the former, and under 2,000 in the latter, as of the 1990s), the majority of the people classified as "Ewenki" in China are Solons. The Solon population was estimated as 7,200 in 1957, 18,000 in 1982, and 25,000 in 1990.

According to Janhunen's analysis, the Oroqen are in fact much closer to the "Ewenki proper" (i.e., the Evenks of Siberia) than the Solon are. The Solon are characterized by their close association with the Daur people. The Solons reside in the same areas where Daur do, in particular, in Evenk Autonomous Banner of Inner Mongolia, and elsewhere throughout the prefecture-level city of Hulunbuir. While the Solon language itself is a dialect of the Evenki language, most of the Solons are also bilingual in the Mongolic Daur language.

In 1763, a number of Solon bannermen, along with their Daur and Xibe comrades-in-arms were resettled from Manchuria to the frontier regions of the recently conquered Xinjiang. These Solon became also known as the "Ongkor Solon". The presence of the Solons in the region is attested in numerous Russian accounts, in particular from the time of the Muslim minorities' war and its aftermath.

Unlike Xinjiang's Xibe, who preserve their ethnic identity into the 21st century, the less numerous Solon settlers gradually assimilated to the Dagur and Xibe. While over 100 Solons still lived in Xinjiang in 1905-1908, less than 20 people identified as Solon in the region in 1991. In 1990, only one Solon speaker remained in Xinjiang; he was 79 years old."

Text by Wikipedia.





Мальчик солон (1869-1870) / Solon boy (1869-1870)


 
Old May 7th, 2016 #57
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Тамерлановы ворота (1869-1871) / Tamerlan's gate (1869-1871)

"Timur (Persian: تیمور‎‎ Timūr, Chagatai: Temür, Uzbek: Temur; died 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane (Persian: تيمور لنگ‎‎ Timūr(-e) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia. He was also the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty.

Born into the Barlas confederation in Transoxiana during the 1320s or 1330s, Timur gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate by 1370. From that base, he led military campaigns across Western, South and Central Asia, Caucasus and southern Russia, and emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire and the declining Delhi Sultanate. From these conquests he founded the Timurid Empire, but this empire fragmented shortly after his death.

Timur is considered the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe, and his empire set the stage for the rise of the more structured and lasting Gunpowder Empires in the 1500s and 1600s.

Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan. "In his formal correspondence Temur continued throughout his life to portray himself as the restorer of Chinggisid rights. He justified his Iranian, Mamluk and Ottoman campaigns as a re-imposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers To legitimize his conquests, Timur relied on Islamic symbols and language, referred to himself as the "Sword of Islam" and patronized educational and religious institutions. He converted nearly all the Borjigin leaders to Islam during his lifetime.

Timur also decisively defeated the Christian Knights Hospitaller at Smyrna, styling himself a ghazi. By the end of his reign, Timur had gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhanate, and Golden Horde and even attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty.

Timur's armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and were feared throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe, sizable parts of which were laid waste by his campaigns. Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population.

He was the grandfather of the renowned Timurid sultan, astronomer and mathematician Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449, and the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled parts of South Asia for over three centuries, from 1526 until 1857. Timur is also recognized as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with Muslim intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru."

Text by Wikipedia.





Двери Тамерлана (1872) / Door of Tamerlan (1872)





Мальчик-узбек (1867-1868) / Uzbek boy (1867-1868)





Ташкент. Узбекская женщина (1873) / Uzbek woman in Tashkent (1873)

"Tashkent (Uzbek: Toshkent; literally "Stone City") is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan. The officially registered population of the city in 2012 was about 2,309,300.

Due to its position in Central Asia, Tashkent came under Sogdian and Turkic influence early in its history, before Islam in the 8th century AD. After its destruction by Genghis Khan in 1219, the city was rebuilt and profited from the Silk Road. In 1865 it was conquered by the Russian Empire. Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multi-ethnic population with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority."

Text by Wikipedia.





Дервиши в праздничных нарядах. Ташкент (1869-1870) / Dervishes in festive attire. Tashkent (1869-1870)

"A dervish or darvesh is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "Tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity. His focus is on the universal values of love and service, deserting the illusions of ego to reach God. In most Sufi orders, a dervish is known to practice dhikr through physical exertions or religious practices to attain the ecstatic trance to reach Allah. Their most common practice is Sama which is associated with Rumi."

Text by Wikipedia.





Хор дервишей, просящих милостыню. Ташкент (1870) / Chorus of dervishes begging. Tashkent (1870)





У дверей мечети (1873) / At the door of the mosque (1873)





Продажа ребенка-невольника (1872) / Sale of a slave child (1872)





Портрет бачи (1867) / Portrait of a bacha (1867)

"Bacha bāzī (Persian: بچه بازی‎‎, literally "boy play"; from بچه bacha, "child", and بازی bāzī, "game") is a slang term in Afghanistan for a wide variety of activities that involve child sexual abuse and pederasty. The perpetrator is commonly called Bacha Baz (meaning "pedophile" in Persian). It may include to some extent child pornography, sexual slavery, and child prostitution in which prepubescent and adolescent boys are sold to wealthy or powerful men for entertainment and sexual activities. Bacha bazi has existed throughout history, and is currently reported in various parts of Afghanistan. Force and coercion are a common component of this abuse, and security officials state they are unable to end it because many of the men involved in bacha bazi-related activities are powerful and well-armed warlords including former Northern Alliance commanders.

During the Taliban's rule (1994-2001), bacha bazi officially carried the death penalty but was rarely enforced. The practice of dancing boys is illegal under Afghan law, being "against both sharia law and the civil code", but the laws are seldom enforced against powerful offenders and police have been reportedly complicit in related crimes.

Allegations have surfaced that US forces in Afghanistan after the Invasion of Afghanistan intentionally ignored Bacha Bazi. The military denied this, but claimed that it was largely the responsibility of the local Afghan government."

Text by Wikipedia.





Бача со своими поклонниками (1868) / Bacha with his fans (1868)

This painting was destroyed by the author.


 
Old June 12th, 2016 #58
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Узбеки (1867) / Uzbeks (1867)





Политики в опиумной лавочке. Ташкент. (1870) / Politicians in opium shop. Tashkent. (1870)





Самарканд (1869-1870) / Samarkand (1869-1870)

"Samarkand (from Sogdian: "Stone Fort" or "Rock Town"; Uzbek: Samarqand; Persian: سمرقند‎‎; Cyrillic/Russian: Самарканд, Sanskrit term Samara Khanda which literally means "region of war"), alternatively Samarqand or Samarcand, is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Central Asia. There is evidence of human activity in the area of the city from the late Paleolithic era, though there is no direct evidence of when exactly Samarkand proper was founded, some theories are that it was founded between the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean, at times Samarkand has been one of the greatest cities of Central Asia.

By the time of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia, it was the capital of the Sogdian satrapy. The city was taken by Alexander the Great in 329 BC, when it was known by its Greek name of Marakanda. The city was ruled by a succession of Iranian, Persian, and Turkish peoples until the Mongols under Genghis Khan conquered Samarkand in 1220. Today, Samarkand is the capital of Samarqand Region, and Uzbekistan's third largest city.

The city is noted for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the Gur-e Amir). The Bibi-Khanym Mosque (a modern replica) remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city. The city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts: embroidery, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, carving and painting on wood. In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures."

Text by Wikipedia.





Главная улица в Самарканде с высоты цитадели ранним утром (1869-1870) / Main street of Samarkand, from the height of the citadel in the early morning (1869-1870)





Мавзолей Шах-и-Зинда в Самарканде (1869-1870) / Mausoleum of Shah-i-Zinda in Samarkand (1869-1870)

"Shah-i-Zinda (Uzbek: Shohizinda; Persian: شاه زنده‎‎, meaning "The Living King") is a necropolis in the north-eastern part of Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

The Shah-i-Zinda Ensemble includes mausoleums and other ritual buildings of 9-14th and 19th centuries. The name Shah-i-Zinda (meaning "The living king") is connected with the legend that Kusam ibn Abbas, the cousin of the prophet Muhammad was buried there. As if he came to Samarkand with the Arab invasion in the 7th century to preach Islam. Popular legends speak that he was beheaded for his faith. But he took his head and went into the deep well (Garden of Paradise), where he's still living now.

The Shah-i-Zinda complex was formed over nine (from 11th till 19th) centuries and now includes more than twenty buildings."

Text by Wikipedia.





Самарканд. Мавзолей Гур-Эмир. (1890) / Samarkand. Gur-e-Amir Mausoleum. (1890)

"The Gūr-i Amīr or Guri Amir (Uzbek: Amir Temur maqbarasi, Go'ri Amir, Persian: گورِ امیر‎‎), is a mausoleum of the Asian conqueror Tamerlane (also known as Timur) in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. It occupies an important place in the history of Persian-Mongolian Architecture as the precursor and model for later great Mughal architecture tombs, including Gardens of Babur in Kabul, Humayun's Tomb in Delhi and the Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Timur's Persianised descendants, the ruling Mughal dynasty of North India. It has been heavily restored."

Text by Wikipedia.





Самарканд. Медресе Шир-дор на площади Регистан. (1869-1870) / Samarkand. Sher-Dor madrasah in Registan Square. (1869-1870)





Нищие в Самарканде (1869-1870) / Beggars in Samarkand (1869-1870)





Портрет цыгана (1870) / Portrait of a gypsy (1870)





Постоялый двор близ Ташкента (1867) / The inn near Tashkent (1867)



Last edited by Alex Him; June 12th, 2016 at 06:18 AM.
 
Old June 12th, 2016 #59
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Vasily Vereshchagin (VIII)



Уличный музыкант. Дутарист. (1870) / A dutar-player (1870)





Верблюд во дворе караван-сарая (1869-1870) / Camel in the courtyard of caravanserai (1869-1870)





Всадники, переплывающие реку / Riders, swimming the river





Евнух у дверей Гарема (1870-ые) / Eunuch at the door of the harem (1870-s)





Мулла Керим и мулла Рахим по дороге на базар ссорятся (1873) / Mullah Rahim and Mullah Karim quarrel on their way to the market (1873)





Старшина деревни Ходжагент (1868) / Uzbek, the foreman (elder) village Hodzhagent (1868)





Улица в деревне Ходжагенте (1868) / Street in the village Hodzhagent (1868)





Портрет мужчины в белой чалме (1867) / Portrait of a man in a white turban (1867)





Продавцы посуды в Узбекистане / Sellers of dishes in Uzbekistan






У гробницы святого (1873) / At the tomb of the saint man (1873)


 
Old June 12th, 2016 #60
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Vasily Vereshchagin (IX)



Бухарский солдат (сарбаз) - (1873) / Bukhara soldier (Sarbaz) (1873)

"Bukhara (Uzbek: Buxoro; Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: بخارا‎‎; Russian: Бухара), is one of the cities (viloyat) of Uzbekistan. Bukhara is a city-museum, with about 140 architectural monuments. The nation's fifth-largest city. Humans have inhabited the region around Bukhara for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long served as a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. UNESCO has listed the historic center of Bukhara (which contains numerous mosques and madrassas) as a World Heritage Site."

Text by Wikipedia.




Туркестанский солдат в зимней форме (1873) / Turkestan [Russian] soldier in the winter uniform (1873)





Туркестанский офицер, когда похода не будет (1873) / Turkestan officer, when there will no campaign (1873)





У крепостной стены. Пусть войдут. (1871) / At the Fortress Walls. Let them Enter (1871)





Смертельно раненный (1873) / Mortally Wounded (1873)





После неудачи (1868) / After failure (1868)

This is a pair to the picture "After good luck".





Парламентёры. "Сдавайся!" — "Убирайся к чёрту!" (1873) / Parlimentaire. "Surrender!" - "Go to hell!" (1873)





Киргизия. Юрты на берегу реки Чу (1875) / Kyrgyz tent on the Chu River (1875)





Киргиз (1870) / Kyrgyz (1870)





Богатый киргизский охотник с соколом (1871) / A rich Kyrgyz hunter with a falcon (1871)


 
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