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Old August 6th, 2008 #1
albion
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Archaeologists think they have found Germany's answer to the Stonehenge monument.
http://www.comcast.net/data/fan/html...ml?v=814653246
 
Old August 8th, 2008 #2
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German scientists dig for their own Stonehenge

BERLIN (Reuters Life!) - Archaeologists have discovered traces of a Bronze Age place of worship in Germany in what they say might be the country's answer to Stonehenge.

Scientists from a university in Halle are excavating a roughly 4,000 year-old circular site in eastern Germany which contains graves that bear a strong resemblance to Stonehenge, a prehistoric stone circle of towering megaliths in southern Britain.

"It is the first finding of this kind on the European mainland which we have been able to fully excavate and which shows a structure we have until now only seen in Britain," Andre Spatzier, head of the excavation team, told Reuters TV.

He thinks rituals and ceremonies took place at the site, possibly even sacrifices.

"The way it is built, with many concentrated rings of graves, walls, palisades and pillars are very similar to the British monument at Stonehenge," added Spatzier.

The site, near the town of Poemmelte, was discovered through aerial photos which showed the formation of the graves in a ring with a diameter of about 80 meters (yards).

One difference to Stonehenge, however, is that the remains are made out of wood rather than stone.

So far the scientists have found few items such as bones or pieces of glass, but they expect to find more as the dig continues. The final results are expected to take up to three years.

Stonehenge goes back to 3,100 BC when native Neolithic people started its construction. There is no consensus among scholars on whether it was a temple, burial ground or an astronomical site.

(Reporting by Reuters Television, Writing by Madeline Chambers, editing by Paul Casciato)

http://www.reuters.com/article/lifes...23035920080806
 
Old August 8th, 2008 #3
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Fully preserved Thracian chariot discovered near Elhovo
18:27 Fri 08 Aug 2008 - Svetlana Guineva

A team led by archaeologist Daniela Agre of Bulgaria's National Institute of Archaeology unearthed an ancient four–wheel chariot near the Borissovo village in the Elhovo region, dating back from the first half of the second century ACE, Focus news agency reported.

Along with the 1900-year-old chariot, in the funeral mound the team discovered shields, richly adorned in bronze, as well as table pottery and glass vessels. The finds led Agre to believe that she had come across the funeral of a wealthy Thracian aristocrat.

The chariot was fully preserved, which, the archaeologist said, was a rare circumstance and it was the first such case in Bulgaria.

Agre’s team also found the skeletons of two riding horses and some leather objects placed next to them, believed to be horse harnesses. The archaeologist suspected the horses have been sacrificed for the burial ceremony.

Agre has explained that the discovery could be traced back to the rule of Roman emperor Trajan (from 98 to 117 ACE), when Thrace was a Roman province. Thracian aristocrats, however, displayed loyalty by serving in the Roman army, and were able to preserve their privileges of nobility.

http://www.sofiaecho.com/article/ful...31103/catid_66
 
Old August 22nd, 2008 #4
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Mummified Iceman's Ancient Job Determined

By Jeanna Bryner, Senior Writer

Before his body froze and mummified, a now-famous Neolithic guy dubbed the Iceman took his last steps while donned in a coat and leggings made of sheep's fur and moccasins made of cattle leather. That was more than 5,000 years ago.

The 45-year-old man apparently trekked up the Schnalstal glacier in the Italian Alps before dying, and a new study reveals more about how he lived.

The body of the Iceman (also called Ötzi, Frozen Fritz and Similaun Man) was discovered in 1991 by accident by German tourists and made headlines around the world. At first he was thought to have died recently.

Since then, the ancient mummy has undergone a slew of examinations from which scientists have gleaned bits of information about the man’s last steps on Earth, ranging from his last meal (unleavened bread and meat) to the cause of death. The most recent verdict is the Iceman died of head trauma.

Still, questions have abounded regarding Ötzi's occupation, and the new findings provide clues.

"There is a long lasting debate about the socio-cultural state of Iceman's society," lead researcher Klaus Hollemeyer of Saarland University in Germany told LiveScience. "One fraction says he belongs to the gatherer-hunter society, which is more primitive than the more progressive pastoral-agricultural society which followed after."

While clothing made from domesticated animals would support him being a herdsman (pastoral-agricultural society), attire made from wild animals could suggest a hunter-gatherer, the researchers say. Although his clothes were known already to be made of animal skins, their exact origin was uncertain, with previous studies revealing conflicting results.

The new clothing discovery, detailed today in the journal Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, supports the idea that the Iceman herded sheep, cattle and perhaps goat.

The researchers used a mass spectrometer, which measures the heft and concentrations of atoms and molecules, to look for various proteins in hair samples taken from the Iceman's clothing, comparing the results with proteins from the hairs of modern-day animals, including goat, sheep, elk, wild boar and caribou.

"We found that the hairs came from sheep and cattle, just the types of animals that herdsmen care for during their seasonal migrations," Hollemeyer said.

Next, Hollemeyer hopes to use the same technique to analyze the fur from the Iceman's cap and soles of his shoes.

http://www.livescience.com/history/0...n-clothes.html
 
Old August 25th, 2008 #5
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'Sensational' fossil illuminates birth of dinosaurs

By Harry de Quetteville
Last Updated: 2:01pm BST 22/08/2008

An archaeological dig in central Germany has unearthed fossils which could be the oldest record of dinosaur life ever.

The dinosaur find, at a quarry near the town of Bernburg 90 miles south-west of Berlin, appears to date from 250 million years ago.



Scientists previously believed that dinosaurs evolved from smaller reptilians around 235 million years ago.

But the new find could radically redraw archaeologists' understanding of the dawn of the Triassic age, and the birth of the dinosaur era.

"This is a spectacular, unique achievement," said regional archaeology chief Harald Meller, announcing the discovery.

He said that the crucial remnants * believed to be fossils of bone fragments - had been secured, but the German authorities called on amateur enthusiasts to stay away from the site, for fear of damaging potential further finds.

Other experts declared the dig of "sensational importance".

If confirmed, the find would add to a long list of landmark archaeological dinosaur discoveries in Germany, including the Archaeopteryx, which showed a link between dinosaurs and birds.

It was discovered in southern German in the 19th century, helping to cement the reputation of Darwin's theory of evolution.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/mai...ifossil122.xml
 
Old August 27th, 2008 #6
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Pre-Incan Wari Mummy found with BLUE eyes

http://vnnforum.com/showthread.php?t=78953
 
Old March 7th, 2015 #8
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Alex Linder View Post
...Since then, the ancient mummy has undergone a slew of examinations from which scientists have gleaned bits of information about the man’s last steps on Earth, ranging from his last meal (unleavened bread and meat) to the cause of death. The most recent verdict is the Iceman died of head trauma...
Since then, scientists have identified the bacteria flora whose DNA make-up has remained better intact than that of the Iceman's himself:

https://www.google.nl/search?q=badis...l%3B1024%3B669

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Old June 11th, 2015 #9
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Default Wandering to and from Black Forest/Denmark teenage girl's Bronze age grave discovered on Danish Island - 4 photo gallery:

http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/m...a-1035067.html

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Old September 24th, 2013 #10
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All of the ancient mummies/skeletons found in China are Caucasiian. All of the ancient skeleton/mummies found in the Americas and Mexico are Caucasian. All of the ancient mummies/skeletons found in Africa (Egypt) are Caucasian. All of the ancient skeletons/mummies found in Europe are Caucasian. In terms of actual archaeological EVIDENCE, the DOG is a more ancient species than the artificial non-white races.

Guess how much evidence they actually have to prove that all other races evolved from the niggers? ZERO. They just made it up in that jewish way they have. There is no evidence anywhere on the planet that niggers actually even existed before historic times 3,000 years ago. There is, however, a massive amount of evidence to prove that the Aryans were the original race on the planet, and that white people are the holders of ALL knowledge, both then and now.
 
Old November 24th, 2008 #11
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Yesterday I was shocked to hear a Fox News reporter on the recent Bulgarian discovery, linked to the Thracians — " ... an ancient Indo-European nomadic people ... "

The first and last time that hint as to the antiquity and extent of our cultural origins will ever reach the American masses.
 
Old November 25th, 2008 #12
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[via email from reader]

Old European / Vinča / Danube script
Origin

These symbols have been found on many of the artefacts excavated from sites in south-east Europe, in particular from Vinča near Belgrade, but also in Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, eastern Hungary, Moldova, southern Ukraine and the former Yugoslavia. The artefacts date from between the 7th and 4th millennia BC and those decorated with these symbols are between 8,000 and 6,500 years old.

Some scholars believe that the Vinča symbols represent the earliest form of writing ever found, predating ancient Egyptian and Sumerian writing by thousands of years. Since the inscriptions are all short and appear on objects found in burial sites, and the language represented is not known, it is highly unlikely they will ever be deciphered.
Symbols dating from the oldest period of Vinča culture (6th-5th millennia BC)



Common symbols used throughout the Vinča period



Other Vinča symbols



Font created by Sorin Paliga ([email protected]) of the Department of Slavic Languages and Literature at the University of Bucharest, Romania

Download Vinča font (TrueType, 55K)
Links

Information about this script
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_script
http://www.prehistory.it/ftp/winn.htm
Other undeciphered writing systems

Linear A, Proto-Elamite, Old Elamite, Rongo Rongo, Vinča

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/vinca.htm

Last edited by Alex Linder; November 25th, 2008 at 09:58 PM.
 
Old November 26th, 2008 #13
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Vinča symbols
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Danube script)

The Vinča symbols, or signs, also known as the Vinča alphabet, Vinča-Turdaş script, or Old European script, are a set of symbols found on prehistoric artifacts from southeastern Europe. A few scholars believe they constitute a writing system of the Vinča culture, which inhabited the region around 6000-4000 BC. Most, however, doubt that the markings represent writing at all, citing the brevity of the purported inscriptions and the dearth of repeated symbols in the purported script; it is all but universally accepted among scholars that the Sumerian cuneiform script of c. 3000 BC is the earliest form of writing. It is more likely that the symbols formed a kind of "proto-writing"; that is, that they conveyed a message but did not encode language.

[edit] Discovery

See also: Tărtăria tablets

In 1875, archaeological excavations led by the archeologist Zsófia Torma (1840–1899) at Turdaş (Tordos), near Orăştie in Transylvania, Romania unearthed a cache of objects inscribed with previously unknown symbols. A similar cache was found during excavations conducted in 1908 in Vinča, a suburb of Belgrade (Serbia), some 120km from Tordos. Later, more such fragments were found in Banjica, another part of Belgrade. Thus the culture represented is called the Vinča culture, and the script often called the Vinca-Tordos script.

The discovery of the Tartaria tablets in Romania by Nicolae Vlassa in 1961 reignited the debate. Vlassa believed the inscriptions to be pictograms and the finds were subsequently carbon-dated to before 4000 BC, thirteen hundred years earlier than the date he expected, and earlier even than the writing systems of the Sumerians and Minoans. To date, more than a thousand fragments with similar inscriptions have been found on various archaeological sites throughout south-eastern Europe, notably in Greece (Dispilio Tablet), Bulgaria, former Yugoslavia, Romania, eastern Hungary, Moldova, and southern Ukraine.

Most of the inscriptions are on pottery, with the remainder appearing on whorls (flat cylindrical annuli), figurines, and a small collection of other objects. Over 85% of the inscriptions consist of a single symbol. The symbols themselves consist of a variety of abstract and representative pictograms, including zoomorphic (animal-like) representations, combs or brush patterns and abstract symbols such as swastikas, crosses and chevrons. Other objects include groups of symbols, of which some are arranged in no particularly obvious pattern, with the result that neither the order nor the direction of the signs in these groups is readily determinable. The usage of symbols varies significantly between objects: symbols that appear by themselves tend almost exclusively to appear on pots, while symbols that are grouped with other symbols tend to appear on whorls.

The importance of these findings lies in the fact that the oldest of them are dated around 4000 BC, around a thousand years before the proto-Sumerian pictographic script from Uruk (modern Iraq), which is usually considered as the oldest known script. Analyses of the symbols showed that they had little similarity with Near Eastern writing, leading to the view that these symbols and the Sumerian script probably arose independently. There are some similarities between the symbols and other Neolithic symbologies found elsewhere, as far afield as Egypt, Crete and even China. However, Chinese scholars have suggested that such signs were produced by a convergent development of what might be called a precursor to writing which evolved independently in a number of societies. Indeed, there are some similarities between Sumerian cuneiform script and stone markings from Çatalhöyük in Turkey and Kamyana Mohyla in Southern Ukraine, both predating the Vinča culture by several millennia[citation needed].

Although a large number of symbols are known, most artifacts contain so few symbols that they are very unlikely to represent a complete text. Possibly the only exception is a stone found near Sitovo in Bulgaria, the dating of which is disputed; regardless, the stone has only around 50 symbols. It is unknown which language used the symbols, or indeed whether they stand for a language in the first place.
Clay amulet, one of the Tărtăria tablets unearthed near Tărtăria, Romania, and dated to ca. 4500 BC

[edit] Meaning of the symbols

The nature and purpose of the symbols is a mystery. It is not even clear whether they constitute a writing system. If they do, it is not known whether they represent an alphabet, syllabary, ideograms or some other form of writing. Although attempts have been made to decipher the symbols, there is no generally accepted translation or agreement as to what they mean.

At first it was thought that the symbols were simply used as property marks, with no more meaning than "this belongs to X"; a prominent holder of this view is archaeologist Peter Biehl. This theory is now mostly abandoned as same symbols have been repeatedly found on the whole territory of Vinča culture, on locations hundreds of kilometers and years away from each other.

The prevailing theory is that the symbols were used for religious purposes in a traditional agricultural society. If so, the fact that the same symbols were used for centuries with little change suggests that the ritual meaning and culture represented by the symbols likewise remained constant for a very long time, with no need for further development. The use of the symbols appears to have been abandoned (along with the objects on which they appear) at the start of the Bronze Age, suggesting that the new technology brought with it significant changes in social organization and beliefs.

One argument in favour of the ritual explanation is that the objects on which the symbols appear do not appear to have had much long-term significance to their owners - they are commonly found in pits and other refuse areas. Certain objects, principally figurines, are most usually found buried under houses. This is consistent with the supposition that they were prepared for household religious ceremonies in which the signs incised on the objects represent expressions: a desire, request, vow, etc. After the ceremony was completed, the object would either have no further significance (hence would be disposed of) or would be buried ritually (which some have interpreted as votive offerings).

Some of the "comb" or "brush" symbols, which collectively compose as much as a sixth of all the symbols so far discovered, may represent numbers. Some scholars have pointed out that over a quarter of the inscriptions are located on the bottom of a pot, an ostensibly unlikely place for a religious inscription. The Vinča culture appears to have traded its wares quite widely with other cultures (as demonstrated by the widespread distribution of inscribed pots), so it is possible that the "numerical" symbols conveyed information about the value of the pots or their contents. Other cultures, such as the Minoans and Sumerians, used their scripts primarily as accounting tools; the Vinča symbols may have served a similar purpose.

Other symbols (principally those restricted to the base of pots) are wholly unique. Such signs may denote the contents, provenance/destination or manufacturer/owner of the pot.

Griffen (2005) claims to have partially deciphered the script, identifying signs for "bear", "bird" and "goddess". He compares two spinning whorls, Jela 1 and 2, with almost identical marks, and identifies similar marks on bear and bird figurines. The whorl inscriptions would read "bear — goddess — bird — goddess — bear — goddess–goddess" which he interprets as "bear goddess and bird goddess: bear goddess indeed", or "the bear goddess and the bird goddess are really a single bear goddess". Griffen compares the amalgamation of a goddess with bearlike and birdlike attributes in Greek Artemis. Griffen's "goddess" sign is two vertical strokes, apparently symbolizing a vulva; this is reminiscent of the Linear B "female" sign, two upright slanting strokes.

[edit] Marija Gimbutas and Vinča as pre-writing

The primary advocate of the idea that the markings represent writing, and the person who coined the name "Old European Script", was Marija Gimbutas (1921-1994), an important 20th century archaeologist and premier advocate of the notion that the Kurgan culture of Central Asia was an early culture of Proto-Indo-Europeans. Later in life she turned her attention to the reconstruction of a hypothetical pre-Indo-European Old European culture, which she thought spanned most of Europe. She observed that neolithic European iconography was predominantly female—a trend also visible in the inscribed figurines of the Vinča culture—and concluded the existence of a "matristic" (her term for "woman-centered", as opposed to androcentric, but not necessarily matriarchal) culture that worshipped a range of goddesses and gods. (Gimbutas did not posit a single universal Mother Goddess.) She also incorporated the Vinča markings into her model of Old Europe, suggesting that they might either be the writing system for an Old European language, or, more probably, a kind of "pre-writing" symbolic system. Most archaeologists and linguists disagree with Gimbutas' interpretation of the Vinča signs as a script.

[edit] Fringe literature

Like most undeciphered writing systems, the Vinca script has attracted the attention of fringe authors. The Serbian archaeologist Radivoje Pešić proposes in his book The Vinča Alphabet (ISBN 86-7540-006-3) that all of the symbols exist in the Etruscan alphabet, and conversely, that all Etruscan letters are found among the Vinča signs. This view is not accepted by mainstream archaeologists.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danube_script
 
Old December 5th, 2008 #14
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Lost city of 'cloud people' found in Peru

Archaeologists have discovered a lost city carved into the Andes Mountains by the mysterious Chachapoya tribe.

By Jeremy McDermott, Latin America Correspondent
Last Updated: 7:39PM GMT 03 Dec 2008


Buildings carved into the Pachallama peak mountainside in Peru, by Chachapoya

The settlement covers some 12 acres and is perched on a mountainside in the remote Jamalca district of Utcubamba province in the northern jungles of Peru's Amazon.

The buildings found on the Pachallama peak are in remarkably good condition, estimated to be over 1,000 years old and comprised of the traditional round stone houses built by the Chachapoya, the 'Cloud Forest People'.

The area is completely overgrown with the jungle now covering much of the settlement but explorers found the walls of the buildings and rock paintings on a cliff face.

The remote nature of the site appears to have protected the site from looters as archaeologists found ceramics and undisturbed burial sites.

Archaeologist Benedicto Pérez Goicochea said: "The citadel is perched on the edge of an abyss.

"We suspect that the ancient inhabitants used this as a lookout point from where they could spot potential enemies."

The ruins were initially discovered by local people hacking through the jungle. They were drawn to the place due to the sound of a waterfall.

The local people "armed with machetes opened a path that arrived at the place where they saw a beautiful panorama, full of flowers and fauna, as well as a waterfall, some 500 metres high," said the mayor of Jamalca, Ricardo Cabrera Bravo.

Initial studies have found similarities between the new discovery and the Cloud Peoples' super fortress of Kulep, also in Utcubamba province, which is older and more extensive that the Inca Citadel of Machu Picchu, but has not been fully explored or restored.

Little is known about the Chachapoya, except that they had been beaten into submission by the mighty Incas in 1475.

When in 1535 the Spanish Conquistadores arrived in Peru, they found willing allies in the Cloud People for their fight against the Incas.

Spanish texts from the era describe the Cloud People as ferocious fighters who mummified their dead.

They were eventually wiped out by small pox and other diseases brought by the Europeans.

The women of the Chachapoya were much prized by the Incas as they were tall and fair skinned. The Chronicler Pedro Cieza de León offers wrote of the Chachapoyas.

"They are the whitest and most handsome of all the people that I have seen in Indies, and their wives were so beautiful that because of their gentleness, many of them deserved to be the Incas' wives and to also be taken to the Sun Temple."

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worl...d-in-Peru.html
 
Old June 26th, 2009 #15
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35,000 year old flute found in Germany

Prehistoric flute in Germany is oldest known

BERLIN – A bird-bone flute unearthed in a German cave was carved some 35,000 years ago and is the oldest handcrafted musical instrument yet discovered, archaeologists say, offering the latest evidence that early modern humans in Europe had established a complex and creative culture.

A team led by University of Tuebingen archaeologist Nicholas Conard assembled the flute from 12 pieces of griffon vulture bone scattered in a small plot of the Hohle Fels cave in southern Germany. Together, the pieces comprise a 8.6-inch (22-centimeter) instrument with five holes and a notched end. Conard said the flute was 35,000 years old.

"It's unambiguously the oldest instrument in the world," Conard told The Associated Press this week. His findings were published online Wednesday by the journal Nature. Other archaeologists agreed with Conard's assessment.

April Nowell, a Paleolithic archaeologist at the University of Victoria in Canada, said the flute predates previously discovered instruments "but the dates are not so much older that it's surprising or controversial." Nowell was not involved in Conard's research.

The Hohle Fels flute is more complete and appears slightly older than bone and ivory fragments from seven other flutes recovered in southern German caves and documented by Conard and his colleagues in recent years.

Another flute excavated in Austria is believed to be 19,000 years old, and a group of 22 flutes found in the French Pyrenees mountains has been dated at up to 30,000 years ago.

Conard's team excavated the flute in September 2008, the same month they recovered six ivory fragments from the Hohle Fels cave that form a female figurine they believe is the oldest known sculpture of the human form.

Together, the flute and the figure — found in the same layer of sediment — suggest that modern humans had established an advanced culture in Europe 35,000 years ago, said Wil Roebroeks, an archaeologist at Leiden University in the Netherlands who didn't participate in Conard's study.

http://vnnforum.com/showthread.php?t=96702
 
Old March 4th, 2017 #16
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Default The incredible interactive map of every fossil found on Earth

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencete...sil-Earth.html

https://paleobiodb.org/navigator/

Paleobiology Database encompasses all known dinosaur species, with more than 2,000 types represented
Interactive map allows users to explore nearly 8,000 discovery sites, with information on over 15,000 fossils
Dots of different colours are scattered around the globe, representing different periods in Earth’s history

By Cheyenne Macdonald For Dailymail.com

Scientists have created a massive database of fossils discovered all around the world in a painstaking project that covers 165 million years of dinosaur evolution.

The Paleobiology Database encompasses all known dinosaur species, with more than 2,000 types represented across every continent on Earth.

And, it’s steadily growing, as researchers continue to discover new dinosaurs ‘to the tune of a new species every month or two.’

A remarkable interactive map visualizing the data allows users to explore nearly 8,000 discovery sites, revealing information on what could be as many as 25,000 dinosaur fossils.

https://paleobiodb.org/navigator/

Dr Matthew Carrano, Curator of Dinosauria at the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, first began contributing to the database in 2000 – and, the work continues to grow today.

‘Right now there are about 7,900 localities with dinosaur fossils represented,’ Carrano told Dailymail.com in an email.

‘That means 7,900 holes in the ground where someone has found a dinosaur fossil and published a scientific paper documenting that.’

So far, this accounts for more than 15,000 individual fossils – but, according to Carrano, it’s likely ‘more like 25,000.’

‘Many localities have just a single dinosaur fossil, but others are very rich bonebeds of thousands of fossils,’ Carrano explained.

In the map, dots of different colours can be seen scattered around the globe, representing different periods in Earth’s history.

The data, which for now excludes birds, covers the Middle Triassic through the latest Cretaceous periods, about 235 to 66 million years ago.

Users can choose to browse based on a particular type of fossil or era, or simply choose a location and zoom in to learn more.

Zooming in on New York City, for example, reveals the discovery of a type of clam that dates back to the Pleistocene.
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Old September 13th, 2016 #19
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Unique female sculpture found in Turkey's Çatalhöyük


Archaeological excavations in the Central Anatolian province of Konya’s Çatalhöyük, headed by Professor Ian Hadder, have unearthed a well-preserved female figurine from the Neolithic era of 8,000-8,500 B.C.

The figurine has all parts of its body intact and has been defined as “unique.”

The 17-centimeter and 1-kilogram figurine was not found in a garbage field as usual but under a platform along with volcano-made glass.

With the shape of head, hair style, hands under chest and small feet, the figurine is a typical Çatalhöyük artifact, but is distinguished for its fine details.

Çatalhöyük is one of the earliest large human settlements in the world and provides important evidence of the transition from settled villages to urban agglomeration.

http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/uni...&NewsCatID=375
 
Old November 18th, 2016 #20
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Italian archaeologists find 'world's oldest dentures'


Stumbling across someone else's used dentures might not normally be a cause for celebration, but a group of archaeologists were delighted with the discovery in Lucca this week.

The team, made up of paleopathologists (scientists specializing in the study of historical diseases) from the university of Pisa, discovered a set of centuries-old dentures in an ancient family tomb.

http://www.thelocal.it/20161117/ital...eology-history
 
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