|August 12th, 2013||#1|
Join Date: Nov 2003
Blog Entries: 34
How to: Newspapers, Conferences, Parties
[this will duplicate some of our Strategy section
how hitler did it
- activism, not a debating society
- physically beating up opponents trying to shut down your conferences
key point to grasp: the 180-degree difference in mentality and strategy between bourgeois conservatives and their meetings and racial nationalists and their meetings
|August 12th, 2013||#2|
Join Date: Nov 2003
Blog Entries: 34
Julius Streicher: war hero, orator, Franconian newspaper publisher: how he did it/newspapers (from Little Man, What Now? Der Stuermer in the Weimar Republic, by Dennis Showalter):
NEED FOR PRESS IN GENERAL
- need party press to keep the flame created by the party orators in assemblies alive - so that farmers and others get a continual stream of information about the movement, they come to understand and embrace the party's alternative psychic reality (fighting jewish press for mindshare)
- "What was needed, Streicher said, was consistent marketing of three papers":
1)the party daily: Volkische Beobachter (People's Observer) - this paper had been around since 1890! acquired by NSDAP in 1920
2) national illustrated weekly (Illustrierter Beobachter)
3) local ""fighting sheet"" - in Franconia this was Streicher's Der Stuermer. Notice that Frankonia is roughly between Munich, the HQ of the Nazi movement, and Berlin, the nation's capital
Look at Golden Dawn today. It has begun a national paper, costing one euro, appears each Saturday, will be number 9 on 8-17-13. It has another party paper appearing weekly mid-week. Greece is smaller than Germany, so one paper can cover the entire country, at least for now.
Streicher averaged 3-5 speeches a week in 1929. You see the integration of the speaking and the 'fighting sheet,' all nesting the greater shells: DS within VO and Streicher within Hitler and Franconia within Germany. But Hitler gives great leeway to proven talents to run their fiefdoms, so long as they don't conflict with the national mission, if they do they get corrected or shut down.
- need solid caricaturist and cartoonist to create/underline and enforce stereotypes that stick
- jews depicted as having swollen body, long, hairy arms and hands, big ears, huge, hooked nose, bulging eyes, swollen lips, short, crooked legs
- erotic as opposed to pornographic cartoons "Readers could shake their heads while smacking their lips."
- what Fips (Philip Ruprecht) did was not new, he was just better at it than anyone else; great cartooning talent helped lift and separate Der Stuermer
- Berlin format - three-column octavo - best balance between cost and readability
- lead article's headline inside the cover to encourage buying; big cartoon on cover
- unpaid writers to keep costs down
- common editorial tone, could be multiple writers under same name, or just same feel
- using LTEs as articles, chopping off name, keep costs down
- writing level aimed at average man with little time, energy, average brainpower [this echoes GLRockwell's complaint/observation that all conservative-racial material is aimed at the upper-middle class when it should be multi-level - something for all men]; every man could read and enjoy or at least understand Der Stuermer
- simple-minded invective - a GOOD thing
- childish language - a GOOD thing
- extensive use of superlatives
- bold-faced type
- all the above serve to make the argument the paper is making EASY TO FOLLOW
- making friend/enemy and problem/solution EASY TO GRASP
- relatively LIMITED use of "specialized jargon" of NS movement - again, sacrificing it to the need to be understood by everybody. Remember Hitler saying propaganda must be pitched to the lowest intelligence you're trying to reach
- everything (education, amusement, advertising) subordinated to the struggle against world Jewry and its creation, the Weimar system. Golden Dawn certainly follows this today, entirely focusing on the System, how it oppresses Greeks, and how the GD alone fights it
- main DS editorial thrusts: #1 - the jew is our enemy - what he is and does, topics topical and eternal; #2 the jew built the (Weimar) system and the system serves the jew (and freemason) - at the expense of average Germans. Similar to GD focusing on the international moneylenders and their local pawns filling the country with aliens that attack native Greeks. #Germans are victims and need to respond to this jewish/Systemic threat. Showalter: "Throughout the Kampfzeit Streicher's paper presented the Nazis as a group of people banded together to help their community in any way possible..." Exactly what GD does.
"Other anti-Semitic scandal sheets started and stopped, merged and disappeared, with bewildering regularity. Der Sturmer went on and on...
- PRICE: very low from 1924 on - 20 pfennigs, similar to Golden Dawn's weekly national paper costing one Euro. print run 17-20k, 4k unsold, mostly for newsstand sales, not that many subscriptions, but subs went up hugely AFTER NS took power. Sturmer was profitably from 1924-1933, but not hugely
- MARKETING: sold by small newsdealers and street vendors; sold by the poor trying to make a few marks
- get barbers, tavern keepers, inn owners to subscribe
- showcases: displays set up and guarded by local groups, changed weekly; would be attacked by jews or other enemies, which could be used in the next issue to show the real victims
- ADVERTISING: half-page of small ads. ad costs were very low to attrace "the little men of Nurnberg's business community"; largest advertiser was clothing store Josef Heinrich; also accepted inserts from lingerie shops; up to three pages of ads at peak season, christmas.
- lists of German businessmen; readers could save receipts which would prove ads worked
- party notices occasionally, especially if trying to drum up spectators for a particular event
- OTHER SUPPORT - party was not supported by secret millionaires, at least no proof of this, jew Showalter concedes, saying big business didn't back Nazis till after they took power in 1933
- TONE: "brutal, forceful political style" - "We are charging forward"; a "Drumfire over Franconia." Golden Dawn takes a similar approach - always attacking, and attacking only, key Goebbels principle. The very opposite of the conceding, concilitatory, niggling, remonstrating conservative style, which is always an effeminate pseudo-resistance always followed by giving in
- Enemy Showalter says: "But Der Stuermer was something more than a scandal sheet specializing in invention. From its first issue it was presented as a fighting newspaper, a paper proposing to 'fling the truth in the faces of bastards in Bavarian-German style.'"
- the enemy, jews, claim that Streicher/DS made stuff up, but Showalter provides not a single example. He also claims "anti-semitism" was used to link unrelated NS policies, but a different way of looking at it is that Nazi papers correctly followed the thread of jewish involvement in every single policy undermining Germany - see our own The Problem for factual proof, taken from Zionist press sources without any analysis (!). It is critcial to the nationalist case to demonstrate that jews are as bad as claimed, and this can be done purely through the news reported by jews in their publications alone - simply perception and logic on the part of the reader will tie it together, so undeniable is it. The nazis put the personages and the news in a different context than the jews did, and then competed with the jewish press for mindshare. Who would the average German find more persuasive? The answer is obvious. It's the same today: the jewish-liberal-zionist press censors alternative viewpoints because its own is unpersuasive. It can only win by being the only choice on the ballot, and that's what it attempts through its language, its violence, its laws and its lying.
- Streicher saw the right-wing press as "too conservative, too timid, too intellectual, to attract the attention of the masses" - something much stronger was needed.
- SIMPLIFICATION: reflected in both use of limited types to support/attack (caricatures of jews; division into Aryan good/jewish bad). Conservative disdain this approach because it's too crude and unrefined and unsophisticated. It's an approach fit for a flight, and they prefer to pretend they are engaged in a debate, even though their opponent never debates them, simply runs over them. The DS/Nazi/Golden Dawn/VNN approach is the only one that can win. Reducing the forces we fight to jews, for narrative purposes, is necessary - it is both factual, as a generalization, and clear - it shows the AVERAGE MAN how to tell the good guys from the bad guys. It is the mirror approach to that taken by the jews: they and their attendant minorities and perverts are the good guys, white men, whom they call racists, are the bad guys.
- Streicher used the Generalanzeiger format (entertainment, local focus) with sharp attacks. So...DS was a simple, entertaining, aggressive publication.
- DS's style "was more sophisticated than its critics are willing to concede," says Showalter. "Its tone may be aggressive, loud, crude and banal - but it is above all comprehensible." Just like VNN. Necessary simplification? check. Necessary division into friend and enemy? Check. Necessary tone - aggressive and confrontational rather than niggling and compromising? Check. Same with Golden Dawn - us against the rest of the parties. They are all the same thing. Not sucking up to conservatives, mixign friends and enemies, not CONFUSING PEOPLE with namby-pambyness. Stark divisions, stark partisanship. That's how the winners do it. That's how those who would defeat them do it. Dress for the job you want, not the job you have.
GERMANY-SPECIFIC PRESS FACTORS: what was unique to that time/place, Germany in 20s and 30s versus Greece or USA today in 2013? papers were associated with parties - the idea of 'objective' journalism is an American conceit; in Europe papers tend to be frankly partisan. As the party press flourished, some businessmen began publishing papers purely to make money - Generalanzeiger, a sort of general-appeal paper without the partisan factor. There were 200 of these by 1918, making money, avoiding taking extreme positions, appealing to the masses in a particular area. Local news and entertainment, without sharp politics - this plus some court decisions offering greater protection against libel lawsuits - this is the context out of which Der Stuermer emerged. Again, radio and tv barely exist, press is everything, the industrial revolution is just a few decades old, you're getting the growth and spread of an 'educated' middle class, and the press is springing up to cater to it. The press is split into nonpolitical and highly partisan. But always remember, "the Nazis from the beginning deemphasized the role of printed propaganda in forming public opinion." (p.54) Hitler always said speaking was more important than writing. But writing was necessary as a support medium.
- the VO intitially appeared two times a week
- "Hitler insisted that if the movement were to spread among the broad masses of Germany, verbal propaganda alone was not enough. What was needed were newspapers...of a special kind." Hitler needed a press that would "expose local and national dangers day after day, week after week, year after year; a press heedless of consequences and tireless in its efforts; a press that wuold be Germany's alarm clock." In 2013, with print papers everywhere dying, as they contain no true news, the Internet is the media that would naturally be used for not just daily but round-the-clock alarm-clocking. Golden Dawn updates its news site not just daily, but about 16 out of 24 hours. That is, in 2/3 of the hours of the day, Golden Dawn posts new material. Material filled with not just news but ideology, history lessons, photojournalism of activism around the nation, mocking and corrections of elite politicians, and always lots of creative graphics. This seems very much in line with what a moder Streicher and Der Stuermer would do.
- NSDAP worked very hard to create a local press to accompany its national press (VO) after 1925, ie after Hitler's imprisonment and the reinstatement of the party. This was difficult because people were chosen for loyalty vs competence, and there just weren't that many solid NS journalists. Funding was a continual problem. But they kept at it and got through somehow.
Streicher personal facts: anti-jew "from reasoned conviction"; had 8,000 library on jews and judaica. As opposed to direct experience with them. Jews,
"His own successes led Streicher to develop a theory of propaganda" (p.37)
- need known speakers: men without reputation can't draw audience
- meetings should be advertised, structured and orchestrated in a certain way: "with a spotlight always on a star performer"
Last edited by Alex Linder; August 12th, 2013 at 11:52 AM.