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Old May 11th, 2012 #1
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Cave of Forgotten Dreams (2011)
Werner Herzog (Actor), Jean Clottes (Actor), Werner Herzog (Director) | Rated: G | Format: DVD
3.6 out of 5 stars
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Cave Of Forgotten Dreams, a breathtaking new documentary from the incomparable Werner Herzog (Encounters at the End of the World, Grizzly Man), follows an exclusive expedition into the nearly inaccessible Chauvet Cave in France, home to the most ancient visual art known to have been created by man. One of the most successful documentaries of all time, Cave Of Forgotten Dreams is an unforgettable cinematic experience that provides a unique glimpse of pristine artwork dating back to human hands over 30,000 years ago -- almost twice as old as any previous discovery.

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68 of 75 people found the following review helpful

Creative use of 3D October 15, 2011
By Bob Drake VINE™ VOICE
Format:Blu-ray

I happen to like 3D in the theater and at home, so I want to speak to that aspect of this film.

Mr. Herzog saw the potential for 3D when he first visited the cave. He had to create his own, collapsible 3D equipment to fit through the hermetically sealed cave door, and it had to be manually adjusted for parallax depending on the distance to the image being filmed because access is via a walkway from which they could not stray. On the second visit they could use the knowledge from the first to gauge the length of extensions required to see images on the back side of pendant rocks and protrusions.

The end result is a 3D feast. The cave painters used the 3D shape of the rocks in the cave to give depth to their paintings. In one case the face of a ox is on one face of a rock and the flank of the beast corresponds to a bulge in the side of that same rock, around the corner, much as if you were viewing the animal. While the film and the paintings can be appreciated in 2D, the true artistry of the ancient painters can really only be appreciated in 3D, and Mr. Herzog was right to endure the extra hardship of lugging the 3D camera through the cave.

Bravo.



41 of 46 people found the following review helpful
A soulful film, a deep experience, November 1, 2011
By DJ Joe Sixpack HALL OF FAMETOP 500 REVIEWER
FormatVD
--------------------------------------------
"The Cave Of Forgotten Dreams"
(Directed by Werner Herzog, 2011)
--------------------------------------------
Given unprecedented access to the Chauvet Cave, a vast archeological repository located in the south of France, legendary director Werner Herzog and a minimal crew of four crawl through tunnels and balance on delicate metal catwalks, filming the extraordinary and breathtaking cave paintings found within. Herzog designed a lightweight, portable 3D camera, small enough to be brought into the cavern, so that he could capture the ways in which the ancient artists of Chauvet used the natural contours of the cave walls to enhance their artwork. Although often rough technically, it is the most meaningful use of 3D cinematography I have ever seen, placing viewers inside the space of the cave in a way that seems magical and unreal.

The Chauvet cave paintings were made over 30,000 years ago, depicting predatory animals such as bears and lions, as well as bison, rhinos, mammoths and perhaps most striking of all, a wall of beautifully rendered horses. The spiritual and artistic presence of these paintings is almost overwhelming, embued with primal, primordial history and an astonishing technical and aesthetic command: these pictures are both evocative and beautiful. Herzog approaches them reverently, and delights in their mystery, often shooting them in half-shadow or using moving, flickering light to suggest the rude torches used by their creators as well as the complete, total darkness that shrouded these powerful pictures for untold millennia. Throughout the film he intones in a soft European murmur, musing about the nature of human consciousness and the relationship of this ancient artwork to our own modern sensibilities: how much of the aesthetic and world view of this primitive culture do we carry about with us today? Some viewers may find the intellectualism and pretensions hard to take (as well as the often intrusive but oddly affecting score...) yet it is hard to deny the power of the subject.

You or I will never be able to go inside these caves -- they are closely guarded by the French government -- but in Herzog's film we can become immersed in them. Leaving the theater, walking in sunshine or under electric lights, you may marvel at the wonders that thirty thousand years of human life have brought - the works of stone and steel, plastic and glass, the layer upon layer of habitation and roads, the planes in the sky and the optical magic that brings art to life in films such as this. And, like Herzog and his crew, you may find yourself swept up by the connections we still have to the stunning pictures that lay hidden inside a dark cave for far more time than civilization itself... it is truly miraculous.

A highly recommended, deeply moving film - for the full effect see it in the theaters, if you can. (DJ Joe Sixpack, Slipcue film reviews)
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27 of 32 people found the following review helpful
Messages from thirty thousand years ago July 30, 2011
By Hobbes in Dobbs
Format:Amazon Instant Video
The representations of the animals in these cave paintings is extraordinary. Done on cave walls, the black, what appears to be charcoal drawings, depict horses, lions, bears, bison, rhinos, mammoths, and even the bottom half of a woman. There are shadings on the pictures that are very modern looking, most reminiscent of the artwork of Joseph Beuys and Susan Rothenberg. My eleven year old daughter said "Why didn't we see this in school?" One idea in particular stuck in my mind: that they didn't have words or musical notation, so the only way they could communicate with the future was with these drawings. The esoteric mystic, Gurdjieff wrote something to the effect that true art will last for thousands of years, and that from within the artwork there will be a feeling from the artist, an essence of sorts that travels through time. It is hard to imagine that anything we make now will last as long. This movie is a must-see for anyone and everyone, as I think you can see the essence of how the artist was...

Amazon.com: Cave of Forgotten Dreams: Werner Herzog, Jean Clottes: Movies & TV Amazon.com: Cave of Forgotten Dreams: Werner Herzog, Jean Clottes: Movies & TV
 
Old April 12th, 2013 #3
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Old April 12th, 2013 #6
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Old August 20th, 2013 #11
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The Vikings were not the first colonizers of the Faroe Islands



The Faroe Islands were colonized much earlier than previously believed, and it wasn’t by the Vikings, according to new research.

New archaeological evidence places human colonization in the 4th to 6th centuries AD, at least 300-500 years earlier than previously demonstrated.

The research, directed by Dr Mike J Church from Durham University and Símun V Arge from the National Museum of the Faroe Islands as part of the multidisciplinary project “Heart of the Atlantic”, is published in the Quaternary Science Reviews.

The research challenges the nature, scale and timing of human settlement of the wider North Atlantic region and has implications for the colonization of similar island groups across the world.

The Vikings were not the first colonizers of the Faroe Islands
 
Old May 20th, 2014 #12
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Earliest houses, Bronze Age cremations and tools found by archaeologists in Scotland



An early Bronze Age food vessel found at East Challoch Farm in the south of Scotland


A Neolithic home which is south-west Scotland’s earliest known house, two cemeteries carrying 20 Bronze Age cremations, a pair of rare jet necklaces and thousands of flint tools used in Mesolithic coastal industries have been discovered during the creation of a bypass in Dumfries and Galloway.

Work on the new Dunragit intersection has uncovered a huge variety of artefacts from 7,000 years of Scottish history. Criss-crossing palaeochannels on the edge of a former estuary obscured a house which is thought to date from 6000 BC, accompanied by a perforated stone adze used to work wood.



This Mesolithic stone adze was found near a house

The remains of Neolithic dwellers are thought to come from a nearby ceremonial complex excavated by Manchester University diggers more than a decade ago, unearthing three concentric rings of timber posts initially spotted through aerial photography.

No bone survived in either of the cists the necklaces were found in, although archaeologists are planning chemical tests to deduce whether the bodies had been removed from graves or ritually deposited during the late third and second millennia BC.

They say the necklaces are of “exceptional” quality, originating from Yorkshire in the first examples of their kind to be found in Scotland during recent times.

Of the 20 cremations, the remains of an adult were carried by one wholly intact urn. Three barrows were excavated, with a very finely serrated transverse flint blade piquing “particular interest” from the investigators.

Six Iron Age roundhouses point to only the second Iron Age village ever found in Galloway, dating from around 2,000 years ago and containing evidence of metalworking and a Romano-British Iron Age brooch. Experts observed uncertainty over the impact the Romans had on the community, having used a Roman road which passes close to the site.

In other discoveries, knapping waste and more than 13,500 flint microliths were attributed to a “core focus” of Mesolithic activity by occupants likely to have exploited the nearby resources of fish, shellfish and hunting grounds. Beaker pottery could also be linked to European immigration.

The new bypass route, the A75, was chosen to avoid disturbing archaeology and cropmarks. The remains were discovered during the removal of topsoil.

Earliest houses, Bronze Age cremations and tools found by archaeologists in Scotland | Culture24




The Neolithic Bronze Age jet necklaces are very rare



A leaf-shaped flint arrowhead



An Iron Age Round House



An overhead view of the roundhouse



A Bronze Age beaker pot



One of the jet necklaces



These Iron Age hammerstones were found at Myrtle Cottage



A Romano-British fibula brooch was also found at the cottage
 
Old October 16th, 2014 #13
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Modern Humans Settled in Europe over 43,000 Years Ago
Posted by TNO Staff— on October 3, 20141 Comment



Early modern humans inhabited what is today known as Austria around 43,500 years ago, living in an environment that was cold and steppe-like, according to a recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) journal.

Titled “Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment” (PNAS 2014; September 2014), and written by Philip Nigst and colleagues of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and other institutions, the study detailed how they had analyzed stone tools and their context after a re-excavation of the famous Willendorf site in Austria, the site best known for the discovery in 1908 of the Venus of Willendorf figurine.

Between 2006 and 2011 archaeologists uncovered an assemblage of 32 lithic artifacts and 23 faunal remains. The authors identified the tools as belonging to the Aurignacian culture, generally accepted as associated with modern humans.

The researchers determined this through systematic morphological and technological analysis. They assign the artifacts to a very early archaeological horizon of modern human occupation.

“By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 [the archaeological horizon assigned to this assemblage] is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P.,* and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage,” wrote the study authors.

“Most importantly,” the study authors continued, “for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P.”

The age of the artifacts suggests that modern humans may have coexisted with Neanderthals in Europe for several thousand years, and the location of the assemblage in what was a cold and steppe-like environment over 43,000 years ago also suggests that early modern human settlers, who may have come from the warmer climate of southern Europe, were well-adapted to a variety of climates, according to the authors.

* “cal BP” stands for “calibrated years before the present.” This refers to a scientific calculation designed to compensate for the varying levels of radiocarbon over the centuries in order to accurately predict the result of regular radiocarbon dating.

http://newobserveronline.com/modern-...000-years-ago/
 
Old November 7th, 2014 #14
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The Earliest Europeans
Friday, November 07, 2014

(Peter the Great Museum)COPENHAGEN, DENMARK—DNA from the ulna of a modern human skeleton discovered in 1954 at an archaeological site at Kostenki-Borshchevo, located in southwest Russia, has been mapped by a team of scientists led by evolutionary biologist Eske Wilerslev of the Natural History Museum at the University of Copenhagen. The skeleton has been dated to between 36,200 and 38,700 years old, making the genome the second oldest to be sequenced. This new data suggests that this man, who had dark skin and dark eyes, had DNA from Europe’s indigenous hunter-gatherers, people from the Middle East who later became early farmers, and western Asians. It had been thought that these three groups only mixed in the past 5,000 years. “What is surprising is this guy represents one of the earliest Europeans, but at the same time he basically contains all the genetic components that you find in contemporary Europeans—at 37,000 years ago,” Willerslev told Science. The man, known as Kostenki XIV and as Markina Gora, also had about one percent more Neanderthal DNA than today’s Europeans and Asians, from modern human and Neanderthal contact more than 45,000 years ago. “In principle, you just have sex with your neighbor and they have it with their next neighbor—you don’t need to have these armies of people moving around to spread the genes,” Willerslev explained. To read more about paleogenetics, see "Neanderthal Genome Decoded."

http://linkis.com/archaeology.org/news/8fSTg
 
Old November 7th, 2014 #15
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http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeolo...ck-36000-years

European genetic identity may stretch back 36,000 years

By Ann Gibbons 6 November 2014

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Europeans carry a motley mix of genes from at least three ancient sources: indigenous hunter-gatherers within Europe, people from the Middle East, and northwest Asians from near the Great Steppe of eastern Europe and central Asia. One high-profile recent study suggested that each genetic component entered Europe by way of a separate migration and that they only came together in most Europeans in the past 5000 years. Now ancient DNA from the fossilized skeleton of a short, dark-skinned, dark-eyed man who lived at least 36,000 years ago along the Middle Don River in Russia presents a different view: This young man had DNA from all three of those migratory groups and so was already “pure European,” says evolutionary biologist Eske Willerslev of the Natural History Museum of Denmark at the University of Copenhagen, who led the analysis.

In challenging the multiple migration model, the new genome data, published online today in Science, suggest that Europeans today are the descendants of a very old, interconnected population of hunter-gatherers that had already spread throughout Europe and much of central and western Asia by 36,000 years ago. “What is surprising is this guy represents one of the earliest Europeans, but at the same time he basically contains all the genetic components that you find in contemporary Europeans—at 37,000 years ago,” Willerslev says.

The origins of Europeans used to seem straightforward: The first modern humans moved into Europe 42,000 to 45,000 years ago, perhaps occasionally meeting the Neandertals whose ancestors had inhabited Europe for at least 400,000 years. Then, starting 10,000 years ago, farmers came from the Middle East and spread rapidly throughout Europe. As researchers recently sequenced the genomes of more than a dozen ancient members of our species, Homo sapiens, in Europe and Asia in rapid succession, they added a third genetic component: a “ghost” lineage of nomads who blew into northeast Europe from the steppes of western Asia 4000 to 5000 years ago.

To explore European ancestry further, Willerslev’s team extracted DNA from the ulna, or lower arm bone, of a skeleton of a young man discovered in 1954 at Kostenki 14, one of more than 20 archaeological sites at Kostenki-Borshchevo. This area in southwest Russia was a crossroads at the boundary of eastern Europe and western Asia and was famous for its carved Venus figures of women. Using radiocarbon dating, the man, also known as the Markina Gora, was recently dated to 36,200 to 38,700 years old, making it the second oldest modern human whose whole genome has been sequenced.


Kostenki XIV (Markina Gora), reconstructed by M. M. Gerasimov

A reconstruction of Kostenki 14.
Willerslev extracted 13 samples of DNA from the arm bone, and his graduate student Andaine Seguin-Orlando and other lab members sequenced the ancient genome to a final coverage of 2.42x, which is relatively low and means that on average each nucleotide site was read 2.4 times. From the sequence data, they found gene variants indicating that the man had dark skin and eyes. He also had about 1% more Neandertal DNA than do Europeans and Asians today, confirming what another, even older human from Siberia had shown—that humans and Neandertals mixed early, before 45,000 years ago, perhaps in the Middle East.

The man from Kostenki shared close ancestry with hunter-gatherers in Europe—as well as with the early farmers, suggesting that his ancestors interbred with members of the same Middle Eastern population who later turned into farmers and came to Europe themselves. Finally, he also carried the signature of the shadowy western Asians, including a boy who lived 24,000 years ago at Mal’ta in central Siberia. If that finding holds up, the mysterious DNA from western Eurasia must be very ancient, and not solely from a wave of nomads that entered Europe 5000 years ago or so, as proposed by researchers in September.

Willerslev says the data suggest the following scenario: After modern humans spread out of Africa about 60,000 years ago, they encountered Neandertals and interbred with them, perhaps in the Middle East. Then while one branch headed east toward Melanesia and Australia, another branch of this founder population (sometimes called “basal Eurasians”) spread north and west into Europe and central Asia. “There was a really large met-population that probably stretched all the way from the Middle East into Europe and into Eurasia,” Willerslev says. These people interbred at the edges of their separate populations, keeping the entire complex network interconnected—and so giving the ancient Kostenki man genes from three different groups. “In principle, you just have sex with your neighbor and they have it with their next neighbor—you don’t need to have these armies of people moving around to spread the genes.”

Later, this large population was pushed back toward Europe as later waves of settlers, such as the ancestors of the Han Chinese, moved into eastern Asia. The Kostenki man does not share DNA with eastern Asians, who gave rise to Paleoindians in the Americas.

Other researchers say that this new genome is important because “it is the first paper to document some degree of continuity among the first people to get to Europe and the people living there today,” says population geneticist David Reich of Harvard University, one of the authors on the triple migration model. It also is “a striking finding that the Kostenki 14 genome already has the three major European components present that we detect in modern Europeans,” says Johannes Krause of the University of Tübingen in Germany.

But even if the man from Kostenki in Russia had all these elements 36,000 years ago, that doesn’t mean that other Europeans did, Reich says. His team’s DNA data and models suggest that Europeans in the west and north did not pick up DNA from the steppes until much later. He and Krause also think that Willerslev’s study needs to be confirmed with higher resolution sequencing to rule out contamination, and to have more population genetics modeling explain the distribution of these genetic types. The bottom line, researchers agree, is that European origins are “seem to be much more complex than most people thought,” Willerslev says.

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Old November 8th, 2014 #16
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Quote:
Europeans carry a motley mix of genes from at least three ancient sources: indigenous hunter-gatherers within Europe, people from the Middle East, and northwest Asians from near the Great Steppe of eastern Europe and central Asia.
So....do you consider mulattoes a "motley" mix as well, Ann? If not, why not?

Quote:
Willerslev says the data suggest the following scenario: After modern humans spread out of Africa about 60,000 years ago, they encountered Neandertals and interbred with them, perhaps in the Middle East. Then while one branch headed east toward Melanesia and Australia, another branch of this founder population (sometimes called “basal Eurasians”) spread north and west into Europe and central Asia.“There was a really large met-population that probably stretched all the way from the Middle East into Europe and into Eurasia,” Willerslev says.
Let me see if I've got a proper understanding of this: modern humans hot-footed it out of 'Freaka & bred with the Neanderthals, then spread North, West & East over time. Then what does he mean by "MET-population"?
Quote:
These people interbred at the edges of their separate populations, keeping the entire complex network interconnected—and so giving the ancient Kostenki man genes from three different groups. “In principle, you just have sex with your neighbor and they have it with their next neighbor—you don’t need to have these armies of people moving around to spread the genes.”
Weren't there just the 2 human types - moderns & Neanderthals - living when they bred? Is he saying that after this initial interbreeding that the 3 hybrid branches developed their distinctive racial features over time, due to differing environmental pressures?

Quote:
Later, this large population was pushed back toward Europe as later waves of settlers, such as the ancestors of the Han Chinese, moved into eastern Asia. The Kostenki man does not share DNA with eastern Asians, who gave rise to Paleoindians in the Americas.
So what accounts for the chinks? Who exactly did they spring from, if not the aforementioned?
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Old November 19th, 2014 #17
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http://sciencenordic.com/scandinavia...iest-europeans

Scandinavians are the earliest Europeans
November 19, 2014

Scientists have sequenced a 37,000-year-old genome. The results show that present-day Scandinavians are the closest living relatives to the first people in Europe.

An international team of scientists have sequenced the genome of a 37,000-year-old male skeleton found in Kostenki in Russia.

The study, which was recently published in Science, sheds entirely new light on who we are as Europeans.

"From a genetic point of view he's an European," says Professor Eske Willerslev, Director of the Centre for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen, who was involved in the new study, and adds:

“Actually, he is closer to Danes, Swedes, Finns and Russians than to Frenchmen, Spaniards and Germans”.
 
Old May 23rd, 2015 #18
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Remains of Bronze-Age Cultic Priestess Hold Surprise
LiveScience.com

By Tia Ghose



In 1921, archaeologists unearthed a Bronze Age burial of a girl in Egtved Sweden. Her bones had been eaten away but her clothing, hair, and fingernails remained. Now, new research suggests the girl may not have been born in Denmark.

An iconic Bronze Age girl who was buried in Denmark about 3,400 years ago came from a foreign land, a new analysis of her hair and teeth suggests.

The Egtved girl was named after the village where she was found. All of her bones were missing from her remains, but her clothing, hair, nails and some teeth were still in pristine condition.

The new analysis, which was published today (May 21) in the journal Scientific Reports, suggests the woman may have spent her early life in southern Germany, making several long trips in the last two years of her life, said study co-author Karin Frei, a geologist and archaeology researcher at the National Museum of Denmark. [See Images of the Iconic Bronze Age Burial]

Ancient teenager

The girl's final resting place was first unearthed in in 1921, in a large burial mound made of peat bog. In addition to the remains of a 16- to 18-year-old girl, the oak coffin bore the cremated remains of a child, who was about 5 or 6 when he or she died.

The grave formed a unique microclimate: The acidic peat created a thin layer of iron around the coffin, which let rainwater seep into, but not out of, the coffin, Frei said. These acidic, oxygen-free, waterlogged conditions led to the decay of the bones but left her hair, nails and clothing intact, Frei said.

The Bronze Age teenager was wearing a wool skirt belted with a large bronze disk with spirals on it.

"She looks, in a way, very modern, in this kind of miniskirt and a kind of T-shirt," Frei told Live Science. (Her unique fashion sense has inspired scores of Pinterest-worthy re-enactments.)

Figurines from the Bronze Age show women in similar dress, with spiral symbols associated with a Scandinavian sun cult, so historians have concluded the girl must have been a priestess of that cult, Frei said. [Photos: Ancient Bronze Age Sundial]

Long-distance traveler

Frei first analyzed strontium isotopes, or atoms of the element with different numbers of neutrons, in the wool skirt. Because the rocks in different regions contain different ratios of strontium isotopes, which are then taken up by the plants, animals and people who eat in that region, the ratio can reveal where a person or animal lived.

The wool was not from anywhere near Denmark, and likely came from near the Black Forest in Germany, the team found.

Next, Frei analyzed a portion of the girl's hair and a molar tooth, which forms early in childhood and doesn't change after that. The girl had about 9 inches (23 centimeters) of hair at the longest point, and hair grows about 0.4 inches (1 cm) per month, allowing the team to recreate the last two years of her life.

"She moved from one place outside Denmark, to a place that could be Denmark, to a place very far from Denmark," where she spent a large portion of the last six months of her life," Frei said. "She probably died or got sick and died very shortly after her arrival to Egtved," Frei said.

Given how many trips the girl made over long distances, she was likely traveling quickly by boat, Frei said.

The cremated cranial bones of the child buried alongside the Egtved girl revealed he or she spent much time in the same distant region as the Egtved girl.

Denmark and southern Germany were centers of power at the time, so the southern German girl was likely married in a strategic power alliance to a chieftain in Denmark, and may have been traveling back to her hometown in her last years. The two individuals may or may not have been related; either way, the youngster spent time in the same rough locale as the Egtved girl.

Long-distance trade

The study shows that Bronze Age people were not just trading, but were traveling long distances, said Flemming Kaul, a curator of prehistory at the National Museum of Denmark, who was not involved in the study.

Nordic amber has been found, like a trail of breadcrumbs, along rivers and beaches in Europe and in the Mediterranean. Meanwhile, blue glass beads from Egypt and Mesopotamia have been found in Scandinavian graves, according to a study published in January in the Journal of Archaeological Science. And the bronze used to make the girl's sun-cult belt decoration wasn't from Denmark, but instead had to have come from somewhere like the Alps, he added.

The new finds suggest these goods weren't just traded over short distances hand-to-hand, but that people were venturing to far-flung lands themselves, Kaul told Live Science.

https://news.yahoo.com/remains-bronz...154446565.html



pinterest ideas of Egtved girl's fashion
https://www.google.com/search?q=egtv...YQ_AUoAQ&dpr=1
 
Old November 5th, 2016 #19
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Old November 26th, 2016 #20
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