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Old January 19th, 2020 #1
Ned Hiller
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Ned Hiller
Default Trade Winds and Ocean Gyres: The Beginnings of Trans-Oceanic Travel

Did you know that though the Chinese were the 1st to build ocean going multi-masted sail powered cargo and battleships starting around 100 CE, the age of trans-oceanic travel only began because of the discovery of trade winds and ocean gyres by Portuguese explorers in the 1400s? The trade winds and ocean gyres are currents of wind and water that circulate around the coastlines of continents and encircle the oceans of the world and Portuguese ships would go into these currents and allow the currents to carry the ships to their destinations, which made continuous travel around the world possible since the ships would not be stuck in the middle of the ocean on windless days. These currents of wind and water circulate around the edges of oceans because of the rotation of the Earth, a phenomenon called the Coriolis Force which was discovered by French scientist Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis in 1835.
 
Old January 19th, 2020 #2
Hugh Akston
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Originally Posted by Ned Hiller View Post
These currents of wind and water circulate around the edges of oceans because of the rotation of the Earth, a phenomenon called the Coriolis Force...
Which is the phenomenon that causes hurricane vortexes to spin in different directions, depending on which hemisphere they occur:

 
Old January 19th, 2020 #3
Ned Hiller
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Originally Posted by Hugh Akston View Post
Which is the phenomenon that causes hurricane vortexes to spin in different directions, depending on which hemisphere they occur:

Correct, this and other phenomena like the heat of the Sun, the heat of the Earth, and the revolution of the Earth around the Sun is the cause of all weather phenomena.

The following other discoveries were made by Caucasians in order to determine the cause of weather:

Heliocentricism - this is the hypothesis that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun. This was hypothesized by German scientist Nicolaus Copernicus in 1514.

Elliptical Planetary Orbits - this is the hypothesis that the orbits of the planets around the sun are elliptical because aside from being attracted to the rotating gravitational field of the rotating Sun, the planets would also be attracted to the gravity of the other planets and this would cause distortions in their orbits. This is what causes the Earth to have seasons because the distance between the Earth and the Sun changes which causes fluctuations in temperature, giving areas that are distant from the equator the 4 seasons of spring, summer, autumn, and winter, while areas that are near or at the equator have the 2 seasons of dry and wet. This was hypothesized by German scientist Johannes Kepler in 1605.

Telescope - a device used to see distant objects by focusing light using 2 lenses placed parallel to each other in a tube. This was invented by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1609 so that he could prove Copernicus' Heliocentric hypothesis and Johannes Kepler's Elliptical Planetary Orbits hypothesis.

Water Cycle - discovered by French scientist Bernard Palissy in 1580. This is the cause of rain, lightning, snow, hail, blizzards, downbursts, and tornadoes: water from the surface is evaporated by heat and causes it to rise into the atmosphere and form clouds while also creating an imbalance of air pressure and electrical charge because of the introduction of water molecules into the atmosphere. This phenomenon can be caused by the heat of the Sun, temperature differences caused by the elliptical orbit of the Earth around the sun, and also the heat of the Earth from phenomenon such as volcanic eruptions, this is why there is also such a thing as volcanic rain, volcanic lightning, and even volcanic tornadoes.

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commentariolus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_...pitation_alone
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Downburst
https://weatherstreet.com/weatherque..._tornadoes.htm

Last edited by Ned Hiller; January 19th, 2020 at 09:17 PM.
 
Old January 20th, 2020 #4
Hugh Akston
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Originally Posted by Ned Hiller View Post
Did you know that though the Chinese were the 1st to build ocean going multi-masted sail powered cargo and battleships starting around 100 CE, the age of trans-oceanic travel only began because of the discovery of trade winds and ocean gyres by Portuguese explorers in the 1400s?
Speaking of ships, how many here realize just how gigantic cruise ships have become? Just compare a modern cruise ship with the HMS Titanic, famous for its gigantic size:

Length to length, height to height comparison:



If the HMS Titanic was being followed by its 21st century counterpart:

 
Old January 20th, 2020 #5
Ned Hiller
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Originally Posted by Hugh Akston View Post
Speaking of ships, how many here realize just how gigantic cruise ships have become? Just compare a modern cruise ship with the HMS Titanic, famous for its gigantic size:

Length to length, height to height comparison:



If the HMS Titanic was being followed by its 21st century counterpart:

When Isambard Kingdom Brunel invented the iron steam powered ocean liner in 1843 it could only carry 730 passengers at a top speed of 39km/h.

A RORO gas turbine powered cruise ship like the HSC Francisco which was launched in 2013 and uses a small waterline area twin hull to reduce drag, aluminum to reduce weight, and water jets to produce immense thrust, can carry 10,024 passengers and 240 cars at a top speed of 107km/h.

Last edited by Ned Hiller; January 20th, 2020 at 11:32 PM.
 
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